Author

# Emad Fatemi

Bio: Emad Fatemi is an academic researcher from University of California, Los Angeles. The author has contributed to research in topics: Level set method & Reynolds number. The author has an hindex of 6, co-authored 6 publications receiving 18680 citations.

##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this article, a constrained optimization type of numerical algorithm for removing noise from images is presented, where the total variation of the image is minimized subject to constraints involving the statistics of the noise.

15,225 citations

01 Jun 1995

TL;DR: In this article, a level set method for capturing the interface between two fluids is combined with a variable density projection method to allow for computation of two-phase flow where the interface can merge/break and the flow can have a high Reynolds number.

Abstract: A level set method for capturing the interface between two fluids is combined with a variable density projection method to allow for computation of two-phase flow where the interface can merge/break and the flow can have a high Reynolds number. A distance function formulation of the level set method enables one to compute flows with large density ratios (1000/1) and flows that are surface tension driven; with no emotional involvement. Recent work has improved the accuracy of the distance function formulation and the accuracy of the advection scheme. We compute flows involving air bubbles and water drops, to name a few. We validate our code against experiments and theory.

3,556 citations

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TL;DR: A level set method for capturing the interface between two fluids is combined with a variable density projection method to allow for computation of a two-phase flow where the interface can merge/break and the flow can have a high Reynolds number.

825 citations

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TL;DR: This paper implements a "constraint" along with higher order difference schemes in order to make the iteration method more accurate and efficient, and shows that the "distance level set scheme" with the added constraint competes well with available interface tracking schemes for basic advection of an interface.

Abstract: In Sussman, Smereka, and Osher [ J. Comp. Phys., 94 (1994), pp. 146--159], a numerical scheme was presented for computing incompressible air--water flows using the level set method. Crucial to the above method was a new iteration method for maintaining the level set function as the signed distance from the zero level set. In this paper we implement a "constraint" along with higher order difference schemes in order to make the iteration method more accurate and efficient. Accuracy is measured in terms of the new computed signed distance function and the original level set function having the same zero level set. We apply our redistancing scheme to incompressible flows with noticeably better resolved results at reduced cost. We validate our results with experiment and theory. We show that our "distance level set scheme" with the added constraint competes well with available interface tracking schemes for basic advection of an interface. We perform basic accuracy checks and more stringent tests involving complicated interfacial structures. As with all level set schemes, our method is easy to implement.

701 citations

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TL;DR: The presented semiconductor simulations reveal temporal and spatial velocity overshot, as well as overshoot relative to an electric field induced by the Poisson equation.

Abstract: Simulation results for the hydrodynamic model are presented for an n/sup +/-n-n/sup +/ diode by use of shock-capturing numerical algorithms applied to the transient model with subsequent passage to the steady state. The numerical method is first order in time, but of high spatial order in regions of smoothness. Implementation typically requires a few thousand time steps. These algorithms, termed essentially nonoscillatory, have been successfully applied in other contexts to model the flow in gas dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, and other physical situations involving the conservation laws of fluid mechanics. The presented semiconductor simulations reveal temporal and spatial velocity overshot, as well as overshoot relative to an electric field induced by the Poisson equation. Shocks are observed in the transient simulations for certain low-temperature parameter regimes. >

106 citations

##### Cited by

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07 Jun 2015TL;DR: Inception as mentioned in this paper is a deep convolutional neural network architecture that achieves the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC14).

Abstract: We propose a deep convolutional neural network architecture codenamed Inception that achieves the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC14). The main hallmark of this architecture is the improved utilization of the computing resources inside the network. By a carefully crafted design, we increased the depth and width of the network while keeping the computational budget constant. To optimize quality, the architectural decisions were based on the Hebbian principle and the intuition of multi-scale processing. One particular incarnation used in our submission for ILSVRC14 is called GoogLeNet, a 22 layers deep network, the quality of which is assessed in the context of classification and detection.

40,257 citations

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23 May 2011

TL;DR: It is argued that the alternating direction method of multipliers is well suited to distributed convex optimization, and in particular to large-scale problems arising in statistics, machine learning, and related areas.

Abstract: Many problems of recent interest in statistics and machine learning can be posed in the framework of convex optimization. Due to the explosion in size and complexity of modern datasets, it is increasingly important to be able to solve problems with a very large number of features or training examples. As a result, both the decentralized collection or storage of these datasets as well as accompanying distributed solution methods are either necessary or at least highly desirable. In this review, we argue that the alternating direction method of multipliers is well suited to distributed convex optimization, and in particular to large-scale problems arising in statistics, machine learning, and related areas. The method was developed in the 1970s, with roots in the 1950s, and is equivalent or closely related to many other algorithms, such as dual decomposition, the method of multipliers, Douglas–Rachford splitting, Spingarn's method of partial inverses, Dykstra's alternating projections, Bregman iterative algorithms for l1 problems, proximal methods, and others. After briefly surveying the theory and history of the algorithm, we discuss applications to a wide variety of statistical and machine learning problems of recent interest, including the lasso, sparse logistic regression, basis pursuit, covariance selection, support vector machines, and many others. We also discuss general distributed optimization, extensions to the nonconvex setting, and efficient implementation, including some details on distributed MPI and Hadoop MapReduce implementations.

17,433 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors considered the model problem of reconstructing an object from incomplete frequency samples and showed that with probability at least 1-O(N/sup -M/), f can be reconstructed exactly as the solution to the lscr/sub 1/ minimization problem.

Abstract: This paper considers the model problem of reconstructing an object from incomplete frequency samples. Consider a discrete-time signal f/spl isin/C/sup N/ and a randomly chosen set of frequencies /spl Omega/. Is it possible to reconstruct f from the partial knowledge of its Fourier coefficients on the set /spl Omega/? A typical result of this paper is as follows. Suppose that f is a superposition of |T| spikes f(t)=/spl sigma//sub /spl tau//spl isin/T/f(/spl tau/)/spl delta/(t-/spl tau/) obeying |T|/spl les/C/sub M//spl middot/(log N)/sup -1/ /spl middot/ |/spl Omega/| for some constant C/sub M/>0. We do not know the locations of the spikes nor their amplitudes. Then with probability at least 1-O(N/sup -M/), f can be reconstructed exactly as the solution to the /spl lscr//sub 1/ minimization problem. In short, exact recovery may be obtained by solving a convex optimization problem. We give numerical values for C/sub M/ which depend on the desired probability of success. Our result may be interpreted as a novel kind of nonlinear sampling theorem. In effect, it says that any signal made out of |T| spikes may be recovered by convex programming from almost every set of frequencies of size O(|T|/spl middot/logN). Moreover, this is nearly optimal in the sense that any method succeeding with probability 1-O(N/sup -M/) would in general require a number of frequency samples at least proportional to |T|/spl middot/logN. The methodology extends to a variety of other situations and higher dimensions. For example, we show how one can reconstruct a piecewise constant (one- or two-dimensional) object from incomplete frequency samples - provided that the number of jumps (discontinuities) obeys the condition above - by minimizing other convex functionals such as the total variation of f.

14,587 citations

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TL;DR: A new model for active contours to detect objects in a given image, based on techniques of curve evolution, Mumford-Shah (1989) functional for segmentation and level sets is proposed, which can detect objects whose boundaries are not necessarily defined by the gradient.

Abstract: We propose a new model for active contours to detect objects in a given image, based on techniques of curve evolution, Mumford-Shah (1989) functional for segmentation and level sets. Our model can detect objects whose boundaries are not necessarily defined by the gradient. We minimize an energy which can be seen as a particular case of the minimal partition problem. In the level set formulation, the problem becomes a "mean-curvature flow"-like evolving the active contour, which will stop on the desired boundary. However, the stopping term does not depend on the gradient of the image, as in the classical active contour models, but is instead related to a particular segmentation of the image. We give a numerical algorithm using finite differences. Finally, we present various experimental results and in particular some examples for which the classical snakes methods based on the gradient are not applicable. Also, the initial curve can be anywhere in the image, and interior contours are automatically detected.

10,404 citations

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TL;DR: Basis Pursuit (BP) is a principle for decomposing a signal into an "optimal" superposition of dictionary elements, where optimal means having the smallest l1 norm of coefficients among all such decompositions.

Abstract: The time-frequency and time-scale communities have recently developed a large number of overcomplete waveform dictionaries --- stationary wavelets, wavelet packets, cosine packets, chirplets, and warplets, to name a few. Decomposition into overcomplete systems is not unique, and several methods for decomposition have been proposed, including the method of frames (MOF), Matching pursuit (MP), and, for special dictionaries, the best orthogonal basis (BOB).
Basis Pursuit (BP) is a principle for decomposing a signal into an "optimal" superposition of dictionary elements, where optimal means having the smallest l1 norm of coefficients among all such decompositions. We give examples exhibiting several advantages over MOF, MP, and BOB, including better sparsity and superresolution. BP has interesting relations to ideas in areas as diverse as ill-posed problems, in abstract harmonic analysis, total variation denoising, and multiscale edge denoising.
BP in highly overcomplete dictionaries leads to large-scale optimization problems. With signals of length 8192 and a wavelet packet dictionary, one gets an equivalent linear program of size 8192 by 212,992. Such problems can be attacked successfully only because of recent advances in linear programming by interior-point methods. We obtain reasonable success with a primal-dual logarithmic barrier method and conjugate-gradient solver.

9,950 citations