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Emil Björnson

Bio: Emil Björnson is an academic researcher from Royal Institute of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: MIMO & Spectral efficiency. The author has an hindex of 62, co-authored 458 publications receiving 17954 citations. Previous affiliations of Emil Björnson include Linköping University & Ericsson.


Papers
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Book
03 Jan 2018
TL;DR: This monograph summarizes many years of research insights in a clear and self-contained way and providest the reader with the necessary knowledge and mathematical toolsto carry out independent research in this area.
Abstract: Massive multiple-input multiple-output MIMO is one of themost promising technologies for the next generation of wirelesscommunication networks because it has the potential to providegame-changing improvements in spectral efficiency SE and energyefficiency EE. This monograph summarizes many years ofresearch insights in a clear and self-contained way and providesthe reader with the necessary knowledge and mathematical toolsto carry out independent research in this area. Starting froma rigorous definition of Massive MIMO, the monograph coversthe important aspects of channel estimation, SE, EE, hardwareefficiency HE, and various practical deployment considerations.From the beginning, a very general, yet tractable, canonical systemmodel with spatial channel correlation is introduced. This modelis used to realistically assess the SE and EE, and is later extendedto also include the impact of hardware impairments. Owing tothis rigorous modeling approach, a lot of classic "wisdom" aboutMassive MIMO, based on too simplistic system models, is shownto be questionable.

1,352 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This overview article identifies 10 myths of Massive MIMO and explains why they are not true, and asks a question that is critical for the practical adoption of the technology and which will require intense future research activities to answer properly.
Abstract: Wireless communications is one of the most successful technologies in modern years, given that an exponential growth rate in wireless traffic has been sustained for over a century (known as Cooper’s law). This trend will certainly continue, driven by new innovative applications; for example, augmented reality and the Internet of Things. Massive MIMO has been identified as a key technology to handle orders of magnitude more data traffic. Despite the attention it is receiving from the communication community, we have personally witnessed that Massive MIMO is subject to several widespread misunderstandings, as epitomized by following (fictional) abstract: “The Massive MIMO technology uses a nearly infinite number of high-quality antennas at the base stations. By having at least an order of magnitude more antennas than active terminals, one can exploit asymptotic behaviors that some special kinds of wireless channels have. This technology looks great at first sight, but unfortunately the signal processing complexity is off the charts and the antenna arrays would be so huge that it can only be implemented in millimeter-wave bands.” These statements are, in fact, completely false. In this overview article, we identify 10 myths and explain why they are not true. We also ask a question that is critical for the practical adoption of the technology and which will require intense future research activities to answer properly. We provide references to key technical papers that support our claims, while a further list of related overview and technical papers can be found at the Massive MIMO Info Point: http://massivemimo. eu

1,040 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive survey of mmWave communications for future mobile networks (5G and beyond) is presented, including an overview of the solution for multiple access and backhauling, followed by the analysis of coverage and connectivity.
Abstract: Millimeter wave (mmWave) communications have recently attracted large research interest, since the huge available bandwidth can potentially lead to the rates of multiple gigabit per second per user Though mmWave can be readily used in stationary scenarios, such as indoor hotspots or backhaul, it is challenging to use mmWave in mobile networks, where the transmitting/receiving nodes may be moving, channels may have a complicated structure, and the coordination among multiple nodes is difficult To fully exploit the high potential rates of mmWave in mobile networks, lots of technical problems must be addressed This paper presents a comprehensive survey of mmWave communications for future mobile networks (5G and beyond) We first summarize the recent channel measurement campaigns and modeling results Then, we discuss in detail recent progresses in multiple input multiple output transceiver design for mmWave communications After that, we provide an overview of the solution for multiple access and backhauling, followed by the analysis of coverage and connectivity Finally, the progresses in the standardization and deployment of mmWave for mobile networks are discussed

887 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is proved that the huge degrees of freedom offered by massive MIMO can be used to reduce the transmit power and/or to tolerate larger hardware impairments, which allows for the use of inexpensive and energy-efficient antenna elements.
Abstract: The use of large-scale antenna arrays can bring substantial improvements in energy and/or spectral efficiency to wireless systems due to the greatly improved spatial resolution and array gain. Recent works in the field of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) show that the user channels decorrelate when the number of antennas at the base stations (BSs) increases, thus strong signal gains are achievable with little interuser interference. Since these results rely on asymptotics, it is important to investigate whether the conventional system models are reasonable in this asymptotic regime. This paper considers a new system model that incorporates general transceiver hardware impairments at both the BSs (equipped with large antenna arrays) and the single-antenna user equipments (UEs). As opposed to the conventional case of ideal hardware, we show that hardware impairments create finite ceilings on the channel estimation accuracy and on the downlink/uplink capacity of each UE. Surprisingly, the capacity is mainly limited by the hardware at the UE, while the impact of impairments in the large-scale arrays vanishes asymptotically and interuser interference (in particular, pilot contamination) becomes negligible. Furthermore, we prove that the huge degrees of freedom offered by massive MIMO can be used to reduce the transmit power and/or to tolerate larger hardware impairments, which allows for the use of inexpensive and energy-efficient antenna elements.

841 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Numerical and analytical results show that the maximal EE is achieved by a massive MIMO setup wherein hundreds of antennas are deployed to serve a relatively large number of users using ZF processing.
Abstract: Assume that a multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system is designed from scratch to uniformly cover a given area with maximal energy efficiency (EE). What are the optimal number of antennas, active users, and transmit power? The aim of this paper is to answer this fundamental question. We consider jointly the uplink and downlink with different processing schemes at the base station and propose a new realistic power consumption model that reveals how the above parameters affect the EE. Closed-form expressions for the EE-optimal value of each parameter, when the other two are fixed, are provided for zero-forcing (ZF) processing in single-cell scenarios. These expressions prove how the parameters interact. For example, in sharp contrast to common belief, the transmit power is found to increase (not to decrease) with the number of antennas. This implies that energy-efficient systems can operate in high signal-to-noise ratio regimes in which interference-suppressing signal processing is mandatory. Numerical and analytical results show that the maximal EE is achieved by a massive MIMO setup wherein hundreds of antennas are deployed to serve a relatively large number of users using ZF processing. The numerical results show the same behavior under imperfect channel state information and in symmetric multi-cell scenarios.

707 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: The table of integrals series and products is universally compatible with any devices to read and is available in the book collection an online access to it is set as public so you can get it instantly.
Abstract: Thank you very much for downloading table of integrals series and products. Maybe you have knowledge that, people have look hundreds times for their chosen books like this table of integrals series and products, but end up in harmful downloads. Rather than reading a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon, instead they cope with some harmful virus inside their laptop. table of integrals series and products is available in our book collection an online access to it is set as public so you can get it instantly. Our book servers saves in multiple locations, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Merely said, the table of integrals series and products is universally compatible with any devices to read.

4,085 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper addresses the potential impact of pilot contamination caused by the use of non-orthogonal pilot sequences by users in adjacent cells, and analyzes the energy efficiency and degrees of freedom provided by massive MIMO systems to enable efficient single-carrier transmission.
Abstract: Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communications refers to the idea equipping cellular base stations (BSs) with a very large number of antennas, and has been shown to potentially allow for orders of magnitude improvement in spectral and energy efficiency using relatively simple (linear) processing. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art research on the topic, which has recently attracted considerable attention. We begin with an information theoretic analysis to illustrate the conjectured advantages of massive MIMO, and then we address implementation issues related to channel estimation, detection and precoding schemes. We particularly focus on the potential impact of pilot contamination caused by the use of non-orthogonal pilot sequences by users in adjacent cells. We also analyze the energy efficiency achieved by massive MIMO systems, and demonstrate how the degrees of freedom provided by massive MIMO systems enable efficient single-carrier transmission. Finally, the challenges and opportunities associated with implementing massive MIMO in future wireless communications systems are discussed.

2,046 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors developed energy-efficient designs for both the transmit power allocation and the phase shifts of the surface reflecting elements subject to individual link budget guarantees for the mobile users.
Abstract: The adoption of a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) for downlink multi-user communication from a multi-antenna base station is investigated in this paper. We develop energy-efficient designs for both the transmit power allocation and the phase shifts of the surface reflecting elements subject to individual link budget guarantees for the mobile users. This leads to non-convex design optimization problems for which to tackle we propose two computationally affordable approaches, capitalizing on alternating maximization, gradient descent search, and sequential fractional programming. Specifically, one algorithm employs gradient descent for obtaining the RIS phase coefficients, and fractional programming for optimal transmit power allocation. Instead, the second algorithm employs sequential fractional programming for the optimization of the RIS phase shifts. In addition, a realistic power consumption model for RIS-based systems is presented, and the performance of the proposed methods is analyzed in a realistic outdoor environment. In particular, our results show that the proposed RIS-based resource allocation methods are able to provide up to 300% higher energy efficiency in comparison with the use of regular multi-antenna amplify-and-forward relaying.

1,967 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A general probable 5G cellular network architecture is proposed, which shows that D2D, small cell access points, network cloud, and the Internet of Things can be a part of 5G Cellular network architecture.
Abstract: In the near future, i.e., beyond 4G, some of the prime objectives or demands that need to be addressed are increased capacity, improved data rate, decreased latency, and better quality of service. To meet these demands, drastic improvements need to be made in cellular network architecture. This paper presents the results of a detailed survey on the fifth generation (5G) cellular network architecture and some of the key emerging technologies that are helpful in improving the architecture and meeting the demands of users. In this detailed survey, the prime focus is on the 5G cellular network architecture, massive multiple input multiple output technology, and device-to-device communication (D2D). Along with this, some of the emerging technologies that are addressed in this paper include interference management, spectrum sharing with cognitive radio, ultra-dense networks, multi-radio access technology association, full duplex radios, millimeter wave solutions for 5G cellular networks, and cloud technologies for 5G radio access networks and software defined networks. In this paper, a general probable 5G cellular network architecture is proposed, which shows that D2D, small cell access points, network cloud, and the Internet of Things can be a part of 5G cellular network architecture. A detailed survey is included regarding current research projects being conducted in different countries by research groups and institutions that are working on 5G technologies.

1,899 citations