Bio: Emin Bacaksiz is an academic researcher from Karadeniz Technical University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Thin film & Band gap. The author has an hindex of 28, co-authored 110 publications receiving 2095 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical transmittance spectra.
Abstract: ZnO thin films were prepared using zinc chloride, zinc acetate and zinc nitrate precursors by spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates at 550 °C. Structural and optical properties of ZnO films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical transmittance spectra. Regardless of precursors, ZnO thin films are all in hexagonal crystallographic phase and have (0 0 2) preferred orientation. SEM images show completely different surface morphologies for each precursor in ZnO thin films. ZnO rod was observed only for zinc chloride precursor. The optical measurements reveal that films have a low transmittance and a direct band gap approximately 3.30 eV, which is very close to band gap of intrinsic ZnO.
TL;DR: Al-doped ZnO thin films were obtained on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis in air atmosphere as mentioned in this paper, which resulted in pronounced changes in the morphology of the films such as the reduction in the rod diameter and deterioration in the surface quality of the rods.
Abstract: Al-doped ZnO thin films were obtained on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis in air atmosphere. The molar ratio of Al in the spray solution was changed in the range of 0–20 at.% in steps of 5 at.%. X-ray diffraction patterns of the films showed that the undoped and Al-doped ZnO films exhibited hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with a preferred orientation along (002) direction. Surface morphology of the films obtained by scanning electron microscopy revealed that pure ZnO film grew as quasi-aligned hexagonal shaped microrods with diameters varying between 0.7 and 1.3 μm. However, Al doping resulted in pronounced changes in the morphology of the films such as the reduction in the rod diameter and deterioration in the surface quality of the rods. Nevertheless, the morphology of Al-doped samples still remained rod-like with a hexagonal cross-section. Flower-like structures in the films were observed due to rods slanting to each other when spray solution contained 20 at.% Al. Optical studies indicated that films had a low transmittance and the band gap decreased from 3.15 to 3.10 eV with the increasing Al molar ratio in the spray solution from 0 to 20 at.%.
TL;DR: In this article, a series of Cr-doped ZnO micro-rod arrays were fabricated by a spray pyrolysis method, and X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples showed that the undoped and Cr doped samples exhibit hexagonal crystal structure.
Abstract: A series of Cr-doped ZnO micro-rod arrays were fabricated by a spray pyrolysis method. X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples showed that the undoped and Cr-doped ZnO microrods exhibit hexagonal crystal structure. Surface morphology analysis of the samples has revealed that pure ZnO sample has a hexagonal microrod morphology. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies, the Cr 2p3/2 binding energy is found to be 577.3 eV indicating that the electron binding energy of the Cr in ZnO is almost the same as the binding energy of Cr 3+ states in Cr 2 O 3 . The optical band gap E g decreases slightly from 3.26 to 3.15 eV with the increase of actual Cr molar fraction from x = 0.00 to 0.046 in ZnO. Photoluminescence studies at 10 K show that the incorporation of chromium leads to a relative increase of deep level band intensity. It was also observed that Cr doped samples clearly showed ferromagnetic behavior; however, 2.5 at.% Cr doped ZnO showed remnant magnetization higher than that of 1.1 at.% and 4.6 at.% Cr doped samples, while 4.6 at.% Cr doped ZnO samples had a coercive field higher than the other dopings.
TL;DR: In this article, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscope images show that obtained rods are composed of wurtzite-type ZnO with diameters of about 1-3μm and lengths ranging from 1 to 3μm.
Abstract: Zinc Oxide (ZnO) microrods were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscope images show that obtained rods are composed of wurtzite-type ZnO with diameters of about 1–3 μm and lengths ranging from 1 to 3 μm. The XRD patterns also show that hexagonal ZnO rods mainly grow along the  direction. The optical measurements reveal that films have a maximum transmittance of about 80% and a direct band gap of 3.6 eV.
TL;DR: In this article, structural, optical and magnetic properties of CdS thin films with the addition of Co prepared by spray pyrolysis of Co-doped Cd1−xCoxS (x⩽0.10) thin films were investigated.
Abstract: Structural, optical and magnetic properties of CdS thin films with the addition of Co prepared by (i) spray pyrolysis of Cd1−xCoxS (x⩽0.10) thin films (Type 1) and (ii) Co diffusion doped CdS films (Type 2) were investigated. The undoped film has a hexagonal structure with a strong (1 1 2) preferred orientation. As the Co concentration in CdS is increased, the preferred orientation changes from (1 1 2) to (0 0 2) direction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that Co atoms on the surface of films are found to be bounded either to S atoms or O atoms. Although most of the bindings of Co atoms include Co–O bondings, some of them replace the Cd atoms by making chemical bounds with S atoms. The transmittance spectra indicate the four characteristic absorption maxima at the wavelengths of 680, 685, 729 and 744 nm, which were not observed for the undoped CdS film. Band gap energy Eg decreases from 2.43 to 2.37 eV with increasing Co content from x=0 to 0.10. The Co-doped Cd1−xCoxS films grown by spray pyrolysis (Type 1) didnot show any sign of ferromagnetic behavior. However, the Co diffused CdS films (Type 2) have clear ferromagnetic loops.
TL;DR: The most important methods of preparation of ZnO divided into metallurgical and chemical methods are presented and possible applications in various branches of industry: rubber, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, textile, electronic and electrotechnology, photocatalysis were introduced.
Abstract: Zinc oxide can be called a multifunctional material thanks to its unique physical and chemical properties. The first part of this paper presents the most important methods of preparation of ZnO divided into metallurgical and chemical methods. The mechanochemical process, controlled precipitation, sol-gel method, solvothermal and hydrothermal method, method using emulsion and microemulsion enviroment and other methods of obtaining zinc oxide were classified as chemical methods. In the next part of this review, the modification methods of ZnO were characterized. The modification with organic (carboxylic acid, silanes) and inroganic (metal oxides) compounds, and polymer matrices were mainly described. Finally, we present possible applications in various branches of industry: rubber, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, textile, electronic and electrotechnology, photocatalysis were introduced. This review provides useful information for specialist dealings with zinc oxide.
TL;DR: In this article, the performance of zinc oxide (ZnO) has been improved by tailoring its surface-bulk structure and altering its photogenerated charge transfer pathways with an intention to inhibit the surfacebulk charge carrier recombination.
Abstract: As an alternative to the gold standard TiO2 photocatalyst, the use of zinc oxide (ZnO) as a robust candidate for wastewater treatment is widespread due to its similarity in charge carrier dynamics upon bandgap excitation and the generation of reactive oxygen species in aqueous suspensions with TiO2. However, the large bandgap of ZnO, the massive charge carrier recombination, and the photoinduced corrosion–dissolution at extreme pH conditions, together with the formation of inert Zn(OH)2 during photocatalytic reactions act as barriers for its extensive applicability. To this end, research has been intensified to improve the performance of ZnO by tailoring its surface-bulk structure and by altering its photogenerated charge transfer pathways with an intention to inhibit the surface-bulk charge carrier recombination. For the first time, the several strategies, such as tailoring the intrinsic defects, surface modification with organic compounds, doping with foreign ions, noble metal deposition, heterostructuring with other semiconductors and modification with carbon nanostructures, which have been successfully employed to improve the photoactivity and stability of ZnO are critically reviewed. Such modifications enhance the charge separation and facilitate the generation of reactive oxygenated free radicals, and also the interaction with the pollutant molecules. The synthetic route to obtain hierarchical nanostructured morphologies and study their impact on the photocatalytic performance is explained by considering the morphological influence and the defect-rich chemistry of ZnO. Finally, the crystal facet engineering of polar and non-polar facets and their relevance in photocatalysis is outlined. It is with this intention that the present review directs the further design, tailoring and tuning of the physico-chemical and optoelectronic properties of ZnO for better applications, ranging from photocatalysis to photovoltaics.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of dopant type, ionic size and its concentration on the crystal structure, electronic property and morphology of doped ZnO with a narrower band gap is reviewed systematically.
Abstract: Global environmental pollution and energy supply demand have been regarded as important concerns in recent years. Metal oxide semiconductor photocatalysts is a promising approach to apply environmental remediation as well as fuel generation from water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction. ZnO nanostructures have been shown promising photocatalytic activities due to their non-toxic, inexpensive, and highly efficient nature. However, its wide band gap hinders photo-excitation for practical photocatalytic applications under solar light as an abundant, clean and safe energy source. To overcome this barrier, many strategies have been developed in the last decade to apply ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. In this review, we have classified different approaches to activate ZnO as a photocatalyst in visible-light spectrum. Utilization of various nonmetals, transition metals and rare-earth metals for doping in ZnO crystal lattice to create visible-light-responsive doped ZnO photocatalysts is discussed. Generation of localized energy levels within the gap in doped ZnO nanostructures has played an important role in effective photocatalytic reaction under visible-light irradiation. The effect of dopant type, ionic size and its concentration on the crystal structure, electronic property and morphology of doped ZnO with a narrower band gap is reviewed systematically. Finally, a comparative study is performed to evaluate two classes of metals and nonmetals as useful dopants for ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light.
01 Jan 1966
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells for solar energy conversion is presented, focusing on fundamental and critical aspects like: (a) choice of window layer and absorber layer; (b) drawbacks associated with the device including environmental problems, optical absorption losses and back contact barriers; (c) structural dynamics at CdS-CdTe interface; (d) influence of junction activation process by CdCl2 or HCF2Cl treatment; (e) interface and grain boundary passivation effects; (f
Abstract: Among the armoury of photovoltaic materials, thin film heterojunction photovoltaics continue to be a promising candidate for solar energy conversion delivering a vast scope in terms of device design and fabrication. Their production does not require expensive semiconductor substrates and high temperature device processing, which allows reduced cost per unit area while maintaining reasonable efficiency. In this regard, superstrate CdTe/CdS solar cells are extensively investigated because of their suitable bandgap alignments, cost effective methods of production at large scales and stability against proton/electron irradiation. The conversion efficiencies in the range of 6–20% are achieved by structuring the device by varying the absorber/window layer thickness, junction activation/annealing steps, with more suitable front/back contacts, preparation techniques, doping with foreign ions, etc. This review focuses on fundamental and critical aspects like: (a) choice of CdS window layer and CdTe absorber layer; (b) drawbacks associated with the device including environmental problems, optical absorption losses and back contact barriers; (c) structural dynamics at CdS–CdTe interface; (d) influence of junction activation process by CdCl2 or HCF2Cl treatment; (e) interface and grain boundary passivation effects; (f) device degradation due to impurity diffusion and stress; (g) fabrication with suitable front and back contacts; (h) chemical processes occurring at various interfaces; (i) strategies and modifications developed to improve their efficiency. The complexity involved in understanding the multiple aspects of tuning the solar cell efficiency is reviewed in detail by considering the individual contribution from each component of the device. It is expected that this review article will enrich the materials aspects of CdTe/CdS devices for solar energy conversion and stimulate further innovative research interest on this intriguing topic.