Other affiliations: Pennsylvania State University
Bio: Enric Bertran is an academic researcher from University of Barcelona. The author has contributed to research in topics: Thin film & Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The author has an hindex of 34, co-authored 234 publications receiving 4133 citations. Previous affiliations of Enric Bertran include Pennsylvania State University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The control of the growing parameters such as catalyst thickness layer, temperature and deposition time for tuning the density, length and diameter of the VACNTs and their structure are found to be key points for the optimization of the MnO2 electrodeposition process in view to improve the efficiency of the supercapacitor devices.
Abstract: The optimization strategy for producing manganese oxide supercapacitors based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) deposited on large area electrodes is presented A single sequential process of sputtering, annealing and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) is applied to produce dense and uniform VACNTs electrodes As dielectric layer of the supercapacitor, manganese oxide is electrodeposited lining the surface of the VACNTs electrodes The control of the growing parameters such as catalyst thickness layer, temperature and deposition time for tuning the density, length and diameter of the VACNTs and their structure are found to be key points for the optimization of the MnO2 electrodeposition process in view to improve the efficiency of the supercapacitor devices The electrochemical properties of the obtained electrodes are characterized using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge–discharge techniques A specific capacitance of 642 Fg−1 is obtained for MnO2/VACNTs nanocomposite electrode at a scan rate of 10 mV s−1
TL;DR: The wetting properties of polyamide 6 rods treated with radiofrequency (RF) low-temperature plasma (LTP) using three different non-polymerizing gases (air, nitrogen and water vapour) were determined using the Wilhelmy contact-angle technique as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The wetting properties of polyamide 6 rods treated with radiofrequency (RF) low-temperature plasma (LTP) using three different non-polymerizing gases (air, nitrogen and water vapour) were determined using the Wilhelmy contact-angle technique. Information on the acidic or basic nature of the ionizable groups generated on the rod surface was obtained using contact-angle titration. The wettability obtained depends on the plasma gas used, and it tends to decrease with time elapsed after the treatment when the samples are kept in an air environment. However, the wettability can be recovered by immersion of the aged samples in water. The degree of recovery depends on the plasma gas used and the highest recovery was obtained with water vapour plasma treated samples. Both ageing and recovery behaviour can be attributed to the reorganisation of hydrophilic groups which tend to reversibly migrate or orient towards the bulk phase depending on the storage conditions, although other factors can also have influence.
TL;DR: A new Mueller matrix (MM) microscope is described that generalizes and makes quantitative the polarized light microscopy technique and can be applied to any visible wavelength.
Abstract: In this paper we describe a new Mueller matrix (MM) microscope that generalizes and makes quantitative the polarized light microscopy technique. In this instrument all the elements of the MU are simultaneously determined from the analysis in the frequency domain of the time-dependent intensity of the light beam at every pixel of the camera. The variations in intensity are created by the two compensators continuously rotating at different angular frequencies. A typical measurement is completed in a little over one minute and it can be applied to any visible wavelength. Some examples are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the instrument.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used a Brownian free molecule coagulation model to determine the time evolution of particle size and their number density in situ multi-angle polarization-sensitive laser light scattering.
Abstract: To determine self-consistently the time evolution of particle size and their number density in situ multi-angle polarization-sensitive laser light scattering was used. Cross-polarization intensities (incident and scattered light intensities with opposite polarization) measured at 135 degrees and ex situ transmission electronic microscopy analysis demonstrate the existence of nonspherical agglomerates during the early phase of agglomeration. Later in the particle time development both techniques reveal spherical particles again. The presence of strong cross-polarization intensities is accompanied by low-frequency instabilities detected on the scattered light intensities and plasma emission. It is found that the particle radius and particle number density during the agglomeration phase can be well described by the Brownian free molecule coagulation model. Application of this neutral particle coagulation model is justified by calculation of the particle charge whereby it is shown that particles of a few tens of nanometer can be considered as neutral under our experimental conditions. The measured particle dispersion can be well described by a Brownian free molecule coagulation model including a log-normal particle size distribution. (C) 1996 American Institute of Physics.
TL;DR: The relationship between metal-induced (W, Mo, Nb and Ti) structures and the surface properties of Me-DLC thin films is discussed in this article, which shows the possibilities of controlling the amorphous carbon films structure and surface properties by introducing metal in the DLC matrix.
Abstract: The relationship between metal-induced (W, Mo, Nb and Ti) structures and the surface properties of Me–DLC thin films is discussed. Nanocomposite films were deposited on c–Si wafers by pulsed-DC reactive magnetron sputtering controlling the gas ratio CH4/Ar. The sputtering process of metals such as Ti, Nb and Mo (unlike the tungsten) in the presence of methane shows a low reactivity at low methane concentration. The deposition rate and the spatial distribution of sputtered material depend of Z-ratio of each metal. The surface contamination of metal targets by carbon, owing to methane dilution, limits the incorporation of metals into DLC films according to an exponential decay. Results of electron probe microanalysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate a C rich Me/C composition ratio for low relative methane flows. According to the depth profile by secondary ion mass spectrometry, the films are systematically homogeneous in depth, whereas at high carbon contents they exhibit a metal-rich interfacial layer on the substrate. Moreover, high resolution transmission electron microscopy has evidenced important structural modifications with respect to DLC standard films, with marked differences for each Me/C combination, providing nanodendritic, nanocrystallized or multilayered structures. These particular nanostructures favour the stress decrease and induce significant changes in the tribological characteristics of the films. This study shows the possibilities of controlling the amorphous carbon films structure and surface properties by introducing metal in the DLC matrix. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
TL;DR: Two important future research directions are indicated and summarized, based on results published in the literature: the development of composite and nanostructured ES materials to overcome the major challenge posed by the low energy density.
Abstract: In this critical review, metal oxides-based materials for electrochemical supercapacitor (ES) electrodes are reviewed in detail together with a brief review of carbon materials and conducting polymers. Their advantages, disadvantages, and performance in ES electrodes are discussed through extensive analysis of the literature, and new trends in material development are also reviewed. Two important future research directions are indicated and summarized, based on results published in the literature: the development of composite and nanostructured ES materials to overcome the major challenge posed by the low energy density of ES (476 references).
TL;DR: The facile one-step alkali-assisted electrochemical fabrication of CQDs with sizes of 1.2– 3.8 nm which possess size-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and excellent upconversion luminescence properties are reported and the design of photocatalysts is demonstrated to harness the use of the full spectrum of sunlight.
Abstract: Carbon nanostructures are attracting intense interest because of their many unique and novel properties. The strong and tunable luminescence of carbon materials further enhances their versatile properties; in particular, the quantum effect in carbon is extremely important both fundamentally and technologically. Recently, photoluminescent carbonbased nanoparticles have received much attention. They are usually prepared by laser ablation of graphite, electrochemical oxidation of graphite, electrochemical soaking of carbon nanotubes, thermal oxidation of suitable molecular precursors, vapor deposition of soot, proton-beam irradiation of nanodiamonds, microwave synthesis, and bottom-up methods. Although small (ca. 2 nm) graphite nanoparticles show strong blue photoluminescence (PL), definitive experimental evidence for luminescence of carbon structure arising from quantum-confinement effects and size-dependent optical properties of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) remains scarce. Herein, we report the facile one-step alkali-assisted electrochemical fabrication of CQDs with sizes of 1.2– 3.8 nm which possess size-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and excellent upconversion luminescence properties. Significantly, we demonstrate the design of photocatalysts (TiO2/CQDs and SiO2/CQDs complex system) to harness the use of the full spectrum of sunlight (based on the upconversion luminescence properties of CQDs). It can be imagined that judicious cutting of a graphite honeycomb layer into ultrasmall particles can lead to tiny fragments of graphite, yielding CQDs, which may offer a straightforward and facile strategy to prepare high-quality CQDs. Using graphite rods as both anode and cathode, and NaOH/EtOH as electrolyte, we synthesized CQDs with a current intensity of 10–200 mAcm . As a reference, a series of control experiments using acids (e.g. H2SO4/EtOH) as electrolyte yielded no formation of CQDs. This result indicates that alkaline environment is the key factor, and OH group is essential for the formation of CQDs by the electrochemical oxidation process. Figure 1a shows a trans-
TL;DR: This review gives an introduction to the rich BN nanotube/nanosheet field, including the latest achievements in the synthesis, structural analyses, and property evaluations, and presents the purpose and significance of this direction in the light of the general nanotubes/ nanosheet developments.
Abstract: Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a layered material with a graphite-like structure in which planar networks of BN hexagons are regularly stacked. As the structural analogue of a carbon nanotube (CNT), a BN nanotube (BNNT) was first predicted in 1994; since then, it has become one of the most intriguing non-carbon nanotubes. Compared with metallic or semiconducting CNTs, a BNNT is an electrical insulator with a band gap of ca. 5 eV, basically independent of tube geometry. In addition, BNNTs possess a high chemical stability, excellent mechanical properties, and high thermal conductivity. The same advantages are likely applicable to a graphene analogue-a monatomic layer of a hexagonal BN. Such unique properties make BN nanotubes and nanosheets a promising nanomaterial in a variety of potential fields such as optoelectronic nanodevices, functional composites, hydrogen accumulators, electrically insulating substrates perfectly matching the CNT, and graphene lattices. This review gives an introduction to the rich BN nanotube/nanosheet field, including the latest achievements in the synthesis, structural analyses, and property evaluations, and presents the purpose and significance of this direction in the light of the general nanotube/nanosheet developments.
TL;DR: The constituent, the structure and the properties of the carbon-metal oxide composites, including the synergistic effects of the composite on the performance of supercapacitors in terms of specific capacitance, energy density, power density, rate capability and cyclic stability are described.
Abstract: This paper presents a review of the research progress in the carbon–metal oxide composites for supercapacitor electrodes. In the past decade, various carbon–metal oxide composite electrodes have been developed by integrating metal oxides into different carbon nanostructures including zero-dimensional carbon nanoparticles, one-dimensional nanostructures (carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers), two-dimensional nanosheets (graphene and reduced graphene oxides) as well as three-dimensional porous carbon nano-architectures. This paper has described the constituent, the structure and the properties of the carbon–metal oxide composites. An emphasis is placed on the synergistic effects of the composite on the performance of supercapacitors in terms of specific capacitance, energy density, power density, rate capability and cyclic stability. This paper has also discussed the physico-chemical processes such as charge transport, ion diffusion and redox reactions involved in supercapacitors.
TL;DR: Transparent conductors (TCs) have a multitude of applications for solar energy utilization and for energy savings, especially in buildings as discussed by the authors, which leads naturally to considerations of spectral selectivity, angular selectivity, and temporal variability of TCs, as covered in three subsequent sections.
Abstract: Transparent conductors (TCs) have a multitude of applications for solar energy utilization and for energy savings, especially in buildings. The largest of these applications, in terms of area, make use of the fact that the TCs have low infrared emittance and hence can be used to improve the thermal properties of modern fenestration. Depending on whether the TCs are reflecting or not in the near infrared pertinent to solar irradiation, the TCs can serve in “solar control” or “low-emittance” windows. Other applications rely on the electrical conductivity of the TCs, which make them useful as current collectors in solar cells and for inserting and extracting electrical charge in electrochromic “smart windows” capable of combining energy efficiency and indoor comfort in buildings. This Review takes a “panoramic” view on TCs and discusses their properties from the perspective of the radiative properties in our ambience. This approach leads naturally to considerations of spectral selectivity , angular selectivity , and temporal variability of TCs, as covered in three subsequent sections. The spectrally selective materials are thin films based on metals (normally gold or titanium nitride) or wide band gap semiconductors with heavy doping (normally based on indium, tin, or zinc). Their applications to energy-efficient windows are covered in detail, experimentally as well as theoretically, and briefer discussions are given applications to solar cells and solar collectors. Photocatalytic properties and super-hydrophilicity are touched upon. Angular selective TCs, for which the angular properties are caused by inclined columnar nanostructures, are then covered. A discussion of TC-like materials with thermochromic and electrochromic properties follows in the final part. Detailed treatments are given for thermochromic materials based on vanadium dioxide and for electrochromic multi-layer structures (incorporating TCs as essential components). The reference list is extensive and aims at giving an easy entrance to the many varied aspects of TCs.