Author

# Ercument Arvas

Other affiliations: North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Syracuse University, Rochester Institute of Technology

Bio: Ercument Arvas is an academic researcher from Istanbul Medipol University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Scattering & Integral equation. The author has an hindex of 28, co-authored 141 publications receiving 2428 citations. Previous affiliations of Ercument Arvas include North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University & Syracuse University.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: An overview of spatial correlation is provided and how correlation in a MIMO system affects the amount of data that can be transmitted (MIMO capacity) and how power should be distributed with the knowledge of correlation.

Abstract: The use of multiple antennas has found various applications in the area of wireless communications. One such application has recently become very popular and is referred to as the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna system. The main idea behind MIMO is to establish independent parallel channels between multiple transmit and receive antennas. Each channel uses the same frequency, and the transmissions occur simultaneously. In such a configuration, the amount of data transmitted increases linearly with the number of parallel channels, which is what makes MIMO so popular in the wireless world. The enormous capacity offered by MIMO systems is not realizable when the parallel channels are highly correlated. The goal of this article is to highlight the correlation concept and its impact on MIMO systems. Although correlation can be defined in many dimensions, here we focus on spatial correlation, and specifically consider antenna correlations in mobile units. We provide an overview of spatial correlation and present its underlying parameters in detail. Special attention is given to mutual coupling since it has signal decorrelation and antenna gain reduction effects. We then present how correlation in a MIMO system affects the amount of data that can be transmitted (MIMO capacity) and briefly review how power should be distributed with the knowledge of correlation. Analyses indicate that in real propagation environments, the high capacity gain of MIMO systems can be realized with improved antenna selection algorithms and power allocation strategies.

132 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a class of finite step iterative methods for the solution of linear operator equations is presented, and the basic principles of the method of conjugate directions are developed.

Abstract: A class of finite step iterative methods for the solution of linear operator equations is presented. Specifically, the basic principles of the method of conjugate directions are developed. Gaussian elimination and the method of conjugate gradients are then presented as two special cases. With an arbitrary initial guess, the method of conjugate gradient always converges to the solution in at most N iterations, where N is the number of independent eigenvalues for the operator in the finite dimensional space in which the problem is being solved. The conjugate gradient method requires much less storage ( \sim 5N ) than the conventional matrix methods ( \sim N^{2} ) in the solution of problems of higher complexity. Also, after each iteration the quality of the solution is known in the conjugate gradient method. The conjugate gradient method is also superior to the spectral iterative method as the latter does not always converge and it doubles the complexity of a given problem, unnecessarily. Four versions of the conjugate gradient method are presented in detail, and numerical results for a thin wire scatterer are given to illustrate various properties of each version.

115 citations

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TL;DR: A survey of various conjugate gradient algorithms for the minimum/maximum eigen-problems of a fixed symmetric matrix concludes that the CG algorithms are more flexible and efficient than some of the conventional methods used in adaptive spectrum analysis and signal processing.

Abstract: A survey of various conjugate gradient (CG) algorithms is presented for the minimum/maximum eigen-problems of a fixed symmetric matrix. The CG algorithms are compared to a commonly used conventional method found in IMSL. It is concluded that the CG algorithms are more flexible and efficient than some of the conventional methods used in adaptive spectrum analysis and signal processing. >

112 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, an E-field integral equation for the analysis of finite printed circuit antennas with multiple dielectric regions is developed, where the ground plane is considered to be finite.

Abstract: An E-field integral equation for the analysis of finite printed circuit antennas with multiple dielectric regions is developed. In this analysis, the ground plane is considered to be finite. The dielectric substrates may be either lossless or lossy, and they may be inhomogeneous but must be finite. The equivalence principle is used to replace all conducting bodies by equivalent surface electric currents and all dielectrics by equivalent volume polarization currents. The respective boundary conditions on the dielectrics and the conductors are utilized to solve for the electric current on the entire structure. Typical results are presented to illustrate the potential of this method. >

106 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a general method is presented to treat the instabilities which are frequently observed in the electromagnetic transient solutions using the marching-on-in-time method, which is applied to apply an finite impulse response (FIR) filter with a constant group delay during the course of marching in time.

Abstract: A general method is presented to treat the instabilities which are frequently observed in the electromagnetic transient solutions using the marching-on-in-time method. The basic idea is to apply an finite impulse response (FIR) filter with a constant group delay during the course of marching-in-time. An electric field integral equation (EFIE) formulation for perfectly conducting bodies is used as a vessel to demonstrate the method. Sample numerical results are presented and discussed. The computed results, while showing good agreement with the data obtained from other methods, present great stability improvement. >

104 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors used the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) for scattering calculations, including the relationship between the DDA and other methods, including complex-conjugate gradient algorithms and fast-Fourier transform methods.

Abstract: The discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) for scattering calculations, including the relationship between the DDA and other methods, is reviewed. Computational considerations, i.e., the use of complex-conjugate gradient algorithms and fast-Fourier-transform methods, are discussed. We test the accuracy of the DDA by using the DDA to compute scattering and absorption by isolated, homogeneous spheres as well as by targets consisting of two contiguous spheres. It is shown that, for dielectric materials (|m| ≲ 2), the DDA permits calculations of scattering and absorption that are accurate to within a few percent.

3,283 citations

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TL;DR: The theory proposed here provides a taxonomy for numerical linear algebra algorithms that provide a top level mathematical view of previously unrelated algorithms and developers of new algorithms and perturbation theories will benefit from the theory.

Abstract: In this paper we develop new Newton and conjugate gradient algorithms on the Grassmann and Stiefel manifolds. These manifolds represent the constraints that arise in such areas as the symmetric eigenvalue problem, nonlinear eigenvalue problems, electronic structures computations, and signal processing. In addition to the new algorithms, we show how the geometrical framework gives penetrating new insights allowing us to create, understand, and compare algorithms. The theory proposed here provides a taxonomy for numerical linear algebra algorithms that provide a top level mathematical view of previously unrelated algorithms. It is our hope that developers of new algorithms and perturbation theories will benefit from the theory, methods, and examples in this paper.

2,686 citations

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TL;DR: A near real-time recognition system with 20 complex objects in the database has been developed and a compact representation of object appearance is proposed that is parametrized by pose and illumination.

Abstract: The problem of automatically learning object models for recognition and pose estimation is addressed. In contrast to the traditional approach, the recognition problem is formulated as one of matching appearance rather than shape. The appearance of an object in a two-dimensional image depends on its shape, reflectance properties, pose in the scene, and the illumination conditions. While shape and reflectance are intrinsic properties and constant for a rigid object, pose and illumination vary from scene to scene. A compact representation of object appearance is proposed that is parametrized by pose and illumination. For each object of interest, a large set of images is obtained by automatically varying pose and illumination. This image set is compressed to obtain a low-dimensional subspace, called the eigenspace, in which the object is represented as a manifold. Given an unknown input image, the recognition system projects the image to eigenspace. The object is recognized based on the manifold it lies on. The exact position of the projection on the manifold determines the object's pose in the image. A variety of experiments are conducted using objects with complex appearance characteristics. The performance of the recognition and pose estimation algorithms is studied using over a thousand input images of sample objects. Sensitivity of recognition to the number of eigenspace dimensions and the number of learning samples is analyzed. For the objects used, appearance representation in eigenspaces with less than 20 dimensions produces accurate recognition results with an average pose estimation error of about 1.0 degree. A near real-time recognition system with 20 complex objects in the database has been developed. The paper is concluded with a discussion on various issues related to the proposed learning and recognition methodology.

2,037 citations

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TL;DR: A novel interpretation of the signal subspace as the solution of a projection like unconstrained minimization problem is presented, and it is shown that recursive least squares techniques can be applied to solve this problem by making an appropriate projection approximation.

Abstract: Subspace estimation plays an important role in a variety of modern signal processing applications. We present a new approach for tracking the signal subspace recursively. It is based on a novel interpretation of the signal subspace as the solution of a projection like unconstrained minimization problem. We show that recursive least squares techniques can be applied to solve this problem by making an appropriate projection approximation. The resulting algorithms have a computational complexity of O(nr) where n is the input vector dimension and r is the number of desired eigencomponents. Simulation results demonstrate that the tracking capability of these algorithms is similar to and in some cases more robust than the computationally expensive batch eigenvalue decomposition. Relations of the new algorithms to other subspace tracking methods and numerical issues are also discussed. >

1,325 citations

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TL;DR: This paper has presented and compared several low-cost and non-invasive health and activity monitoring systems that were reported in recent years and compatibility of several communication technologies as well as future perspectives and research challenges in remote monitoring systems will be discussed.

Abstract: Life expectancy in most countries has been increasing continually over the several few decades thanks to significant improvements in medicine, public health, as well as personal and environmental hygiene. However, increased life expectancy combined with falling birth rates are expected to engender a large aging demographic in the near future that would impose significant burdens on the socio-economic structure of these countries. Therefore, it is essential to develop cost-effective, easy-to-use systems for the sake of elderly healthcare and well-being. Remote health monitoring, based on non-invasive and wearable sensors, actuators and modern communication and information technologies offers an efficient and cost-effective solution that allows the elderly to continue to live in their comfortable home environment instead of expensive healthcare facilities. These systems will also allow healthcare personnel to monitor important physiological signs of their patients in real time, assess health conditions and provide feedback from distant facilities. In this paper, we have presented and compared several low-cost and non-invasive health and activity monitoring systems that were reported in recent years. A survey on textile-based sensors that can potentially be used in wearable systems is also presented. Finally, compatibility of several communication technologies as well as future perspectives and research challenges in remote monitoring systems will be discussed.

795 citations