Eric J. Topol
Other affiliations: Loyola University Chicago, Cleveland Clinic, University of Ottawa ...read more
Bio: Eric J. Topol is an academic researcher from Scripps Health. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Myocardial infarction & Angioplasty. The author has an hindex of 193, co-authored 1373 publication(s) receiving 151025 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Eric J. Topol include Loyola University Chicago & Cleveland Clinic.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The findings of this large-scale trial indicate that accelerated t-PA given with intravenous heparin provides a survival benefit over previous standard thrombolytic regimens.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The relative efficacy of streptokinase and tissue plasminogen activator and the roles of intravenous as compared with subcutaneous heparin as adjunctive therapy in acute myocardial infarction are unresolved questions. The current trial was designed to compare new, aggressive thrombolytic strategies with standard thrombolytic regimens in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Our hypothesis was that newer thrombolytic strategies that produce earlier and sustained reperfusion would improve survival. METHODS: In 15 countries and 1081 hospitals, 41,021 patients with evolving myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to four different thrombolytic strategies, consisting of the use of streptokinase and subcutaneous heparin, streptokinase and intravenous heparin, accelerated tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and intravenous heparin, or a combination of streptokinase plus t-PA with intravenous heparin. ("Accelerated" refers to the administration of t-PA over a period of 1 1/2 hours--with two thirds of the dose given in the first 30 minutes--rather than the conventional period of 3 hours.) The primary end point was 30-day mortality. RESULTS: The mortality rates in the four treatment groups were as follows: streptokinase and subcutaneous heparin, 7.2 percent; streptokinase and intravenous heparin, 7.4 percent; accelerated t-PA and intravenous heparin, 6.3 percent, and the combination of both thrombolytic agents with intravenous heparin, 7.0 percent. This represented a 14 percent reduction (95 percent confidence interval, 5.9 to 21.3 percent) in mortality for accelerated t-PA as compared with the two streptokinase-only strategies (P = 0.001). The rates of hemorrhagic stroke were 0.49 percent, 0.54 percent, 0.72 percent, and 0.94 percent in the four groups, respectively, which represented a significant excess of hemorrhagic strokes for accelerated t-PA (P = 0.03) and for the combination strategy (P < 0.001), as compared with streptokinase only. A combined end point of death or disabling stroke was significantly lower in the accelerated-tPA group than in the streptokinase-only groups (6.9 percent vs. 7.8 percent, P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this large-scale trial indicate that accelerated t-PA given with intravenous heparin provides a survival benefit over previous standard thrombolytic regimens
TL;DR: Following PCI, long-term clopidogrel therapy significantly reduced the risk of adverse ischemic events and subgroup analyses suggest that longer intervals between the loading dose and PCI may reduce events.
Abstract: ContextFollowing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), short-term clopidogrel therapy in addition to aspirin leads to greater protection from thrombotic complications than aspirin alone. However, the optimal duration of combination oral antiplatelet therapy is unknown. Also, although current clinical data suggest a benefit for beginning therapy with a clopidogrel loading dose prior to PCI, the practical application of this therapy has not been prospectively studied.ObjectivesTo evaluate the benefit of long-term (12-month) treatment with clopidogrel after PCI and to determine the benefit of initiating clopidogrel with a preprocedure loading dose, both in addition to aspirin therapy.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsThe Clopidogrel for the Reduction of Events During Observation (CREDO) trial, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted among 2116 patients who were to undergo elective PCI or were deemed at high likelihood of undergoing PCI, enrolled at 99 centers in North America from June 1999 through April 2001.InterventionsPatients were randomly assigned to receive a 300-mg clopidogrel loading dose (n = 1053) or placebo (n = 1063) 3 to 24 hours before PCI. Thereafter, all patients received clopidogrel, 75 mg/d, through day 28. From day 29 through 12 months, patients in the loading-dose group received clopidogrel, 75 mg/d, and those in the control group received placebo. Both groups received aspirin throughout the study.Main Outcome MeasuresOne-year incidence of the composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke in the intent-to-treat population; 28-day incidence of the composite of death, MI, or urgent target vessel revascularization in the per-protocol population.ResultsAt 1 year, long-term clopidogrel therapy was associated with a 26.9% relative reduction in the combined risk of death, MI, or stroke (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9%-44.4%; P = .02; absolute reduction, 3%). Clopidogrel pretreatment did not significantly reduce the combined risk of death, MI, or urgent target vessel revascularization at 28 days (reduction, 18.5%; 95% CI, −14.2% to 41.8%; P = .23). However, in a prespecified subgroup analysis, patients who received clopidogrel at least 6 hours before PCI experienced a relative risk reduction of 38.6% (95% CI, −1.6% to 62.9%; P = .051) for this end point compared with no reduction with treatment less than 6 hours before PCI. Risk of major bleeding at 1 year increased, but not significantly (8.8% with clopidogrel vs 6.7% with placebo; P = .07).ConclusionsFollowing PCI, long-term (1-year) clopidogrel therapy significantly reduced the risk of adverse ischemic events. A loading dose of clopidogrel given at least 3 hours before the procedure did not reduce events at 28 days, but subgroup analyses suggest that longer intervals between the loading dose and PCI may reduce events.
Cleveland Clinic1, University of Edinburgh2, Heidelberg University3, Duke University4, Rush University Medical Center5, Hartford Hospital6, Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University7, University of Toronto8, Harvard University9, Brown University10, Imperial College London11, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio12, University of Western Australia13, Gleneagles Hospital14, University of Rochester15, University of Paris16, University of Kentucky17, SUNY Downstate Medical Center18, Case Western Reserve University19
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compared the effect of clopidogrel and low-dose aspirin on the rate of myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes.
Abstract: Background Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel plus low-dose aspirin has not been studied in a broad population of patients at high risk for atherothrombotic events. Methods We randomly assigned 15,603 patients with either clinically evident cardiovascular disease or multiple risk factors to receive clopidogrel (75 mg per day) plus low-dose aspirin (75 to 162 mg per day) or placebo plus low-dose aspirin and followed them for a median of 28 months. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes. Results The rate of the primary efficacy end point was 6.8 percent with clopidogrel plus aspirin and 7.3 percent with placebo plus aspirin (relative risk, 0.93; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.83 to 1.05; P = 0.22). The respective rate of the principal secondary efficacy end point, which included hospitalizations for ischemic events, was 16.7 percent and 17.9 percent (relative risk, 0.92; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.86 to 0.995; P = 0.04), and the rate of severe bleeding was 1.7 percent and 1.3 percent (relative risk, 1.25; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.97 to 1.61 percent; P = 0.09). The rate of the primary end point among patients with multiple risk factors was 6.6 percent with clopidogrel and 5.5 percent with placebo (relative risk, 1.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.59; P = 0.20) and the rate of death from cardiovascular causes also was higher with clopidogrel (3.9 percent vs. 2.2 percent, P = 0.01). In the subgroup with clinically evident atherothrombosis, the rate was 6.9 percent with clopidogrel and 7.9 percent with placebo (relative risk, 0.88; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.77 to 0.998; P = 0.046). Conclusions In this trial, there was a suggestion of benefit with clopidogrel treatment in patients with symptomatic atherothrombosis and a suggestion of harm in patients with multiple risk factors. Overall, clopidogrel plus aspirin was not significantly more effective than aspirin alone in reducing the rate of myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00050817.)
TL;DR: The results from VIGOR showed that the relative risk of developing a confirmed adjudicated thrombotic cardiovascular event with rofecoxib treatment compared with naproxen was higher than that in the placebo group of a recent meta-analysis of 23 407 patients in primary prevention trials.
Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a process with inflammatory features and selective cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors may potentially have antiatherogenic effects by virtue of inhibiting inflammation. However, by decreasing vasodilatory and antiaggregatory prostacyclin production, COX-2 antagonists may lead to increased prothrombotic activity. To define the cardiovascular effects of COX-2 inhibitors when used for arthritis and musculoskeletal pain in patients without coronary artery disease, we performed a MEDLINE search to identify all English-language articles on use of COX-2 inhibitors published between 1998 and February 2001. We also reviewed relevant submissions to the US Food and Drug Administration by pharmaceutical companies.Our search yielded 2 major randomized trials, the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research Study (VIGOR; 8076 patients) and the Celecoxib Long-term Arthritis Safety Study (CLASS; 8059 patients), as well as 2 smaller trials with approximately 1000 patients each. The results from VIGOR showed that the relative risk of developing a confirmed adjudicated thrombotic cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, unstable angina, cardiac thrombus, resuscitated cardiac arrest, sudden or unexplained death, ischemic stroke, and transient ischemic attacks) with rofecoxib treatment compared with naproxen was 2.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.39-4.00; P = .002). There was no significant difference in cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, stroke, and death) rates between celecoxib and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents in CLASS. The annualized myocardial infarction rates for COX-2 inhibitors in both VIGOR and CLASS were significantly higher than that in the placebo group of a recent meta-analysis of 23 407 patients in primary prevention trials (0.52%): 0.74% with rofecoxib (P = .04 compared with the placebo group of the meta-analysis) and 0.80% with celecoxib (P = .02 compared with the placebo group of the meta-analysis).The available data raise a cautionary flag about the risk of cardiovascular events with COX-2 inhibitors. Further prospective trial evaluation may characterize and determine the magnitude of the risk.
01 Jan 2019-Nature Medicine
TL;DR: Over time, marked improvements in accuracy, productivity, and workflow will likely be actualized, but whether that will be used to improve the patient–doctor relationship or facilitate its erosion remains to be seen.
Abstract: The use of artificial intelligence, and the deep-learning subtype in particular, has been enabled by the use of labeled big data, along with markedly enhanced computing power and cloud storage, across all sectors. In medicine, this is beginning to have an impact at three levels: for clinicians, predominantly via rapid, accurate image interpretation; for health systems, by improving workflow and the potential for reducing medical errors; and for patients, by enabling them to process their own data to promote health. The current limitations, including bias, privacy and security, and lack of transparency, along with the future directions of these applications will be discussed in this article. Over time, marked improvements in accuracy, productivity, and workflow will likely be actualized, but whether that will be used to improve the patient-doctor relationship or facilitate its erosion remains to be seen.
TL;DR: This work introduces PLINK, an open-source C/C++ WGAS tool set, and describes the five main domains of function: data management, summary statistics, population stratification, association analysis, and identity-by-descent estimation, which focuses on the estimation and use of identity- by-state and identity/descent information in the context of population-based whole-genome studies.
Abstract: Whole-genome association studies (WGAS) bring new computational, as well as analytic, challenges to researchers. Many existing genetic-analysis tools are not designed to handle such large data sets in a convenient manner and do not necessarily exploit the new opportunities that whole-genome data bring. To address these issues, we developed PLINK, an open-source C/C++ WGAS tool set. With PLINK, large data sets comprising hundreds of thousands of markers genotyped for thousands of individuals can be rapidly manipulated and analyzed in their entirety. As well as providing tools to make the basic analytic steps computationally efficient, PLINK also supports some novel approaches to whole-genome data that take advantage of whole-genome coverage. We introduce PLINK and describe the five main domains of function: data management, summary statistics, population stratification, association analysis, and identity-by-descent estimation. In particular, we focus on the estimation and use of identity-by-state and identity-by-descent information in the context of population-based whole-genome studies. This information can be used to detect and correct for population stratification and to identify extended chromosomal segments that are shared identical by descent between very distantly related individuals. Analysis of the patterns of segmental sharing has the potential to map disease loci that contain multiple rare variants in a population-based linkage analysis.
TL;DR: Lifetime prevalence estimates are higher in recent cohorts than in earlier cohorts and have fairly stable intercohort differences across the life course that vary in substantively plausible ways among sociodemographic subgroups.
Abstract: Context Little is known about lifetime prevalence or age of onset of DSM-IV disorders. Objective To estimate lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the recently completed National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Design and Setting Nationally representative face-to-face household survey conducted between February 2001 and April 2003 using the fully structured World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Participants Nine thousand two hundred eighty-two English-speaking respondents aged 18 years and older. Main Outcome Measures Lifetime DSM-IV anxiety, mood, impulse-control, and substance use disorders. Results Lifetime prevalence estimates are as follows: anxiety disorders, 28.8%; mood disorders, 20.8%; impulse-control disorders, 24.8%; substance use disorders, 14.6%; any disorder, 46.4%. Median age of onset is much earlier for anxiety (11 years) and impulse-control (11 years) disorders than for substance use (20 years) and mood (30 years) disorders. Half of all lifetime cases start by age 14 years and three fourths by age 24 years. Later onsets are mostly of comorbid conditions, with estimated lifetime risk of any disorder at age 75 years (50.8%) only slightly higher than observed lifetime prevalence (46.4%). Lifetime prevalence estimates are higher in recent cohorts than in earlier cohorts and have fairly stable intercohort differences across the life course that vary in substantively plausible ways among sociodemographic subgroups. Conclusions About half of Americans will meet the criteria for a DSM-IV disorder sometime in their life, with first onset usually in childhood or adolescence. Interventions aimed at prevention or early treatment need to focus on youth.
21 Jul 2013-European Heart Journal
TL;DR: In this article, a randomized controlled trial of Aliskiren in the Prevention of Major Cardiovascular Events in Elderly people was presented. But the authors did not discuss the effect of the combination therapy in patients living with systolic hypertension.
Abstract: ABCD : Appropriate Blood pressure Control in Diabetes ABI : ankle–brachial index ABPM : ambulatory blood pressure monitoring ACCESS : Acute Candesartan Cilexetil Therapy in Stroke Survival ACCOMPLISH : Avoiding Cardiovascular Events in Combination Therapy in Patients Living with Systolic Hypertension ACCORD : Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes ACE : angiotensin-converting enzyme ACTIVE I : Atrial Fibrillation Clopidogrel Trial with Irbesartan for Prevention of Vascular Events ADVANCE : Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron-MR Controlled Evaluation AHEAD : Action for HEAlth in Diabetes ALLHAT : Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart ATtack ALTITUDE : ALiskiren Trial In Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardio-renal Endpoints ANTIPAF : ANgioTensin II Antagonist In Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation APOLLO : A Randomized Controlled Trial of Aliskiren in the Prevention of Major Cardiovascular Events in Elderly People ARB : angiotensin receptor blocker ARIC : Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities ARR : aldosterone renin ratio ASCOT : Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial ASCOT-LLA : Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial—Lipid Lowering Arm ASTRAL : Angioplasty and STenting for Renal Artery Lesions A-V : atrioventricular BB : beta-blocker BMI : body mass index BP : blood pressure BSA : body surface area CA : calcium antagonist CABG : coronary artery bypass graft CAPPP : CAPtopril Prevention Project CAPRAF : CAndesartan in the Prevention of Relapsing Atrial Fibrillation CHD : coronary heart disease CHHIPS : Controlling Hypertension and Hypertension Immediately Post-Stroke CKD : chronic kidney disease CKD-EPI : Chronic Kidney Disease—EPIdemiology collaboration CONVINCE : Controlled ONset Verapamil INvestigation of CV Endpoints CT : computed tomography CV : cardiovascular CVD : cardiovascular disease D : diuretic DASH : Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension DBP : diastolic blood pressure DCCT : Diabetes Control and Complications Study DIRECT : DIabetic REtinopathy Candesartan Trials DM : diabetes mellitus DPP-4 : dipeptidyl peptidase 4 EAS : European Atherosclerosis Society EASD : European Association for the Study of Diabetes ECG : electrocardiogram EF : ejection fraction eGFR : estimated glomerular filtration rate ELSA : European Lacidipine Study on Atherosclerosis ESC : European Society of Cardiology ESH : European Society of Hypertension ESRD : end-stage renal disease EXPLOR : Amlodipine–Valsartan Combination Decreases Central Systolic Blood Pressure more Effectively than the Amlodipine–Atenolol Combination FDA : U.S. Food and Drug Administration FEVER : Felodipine EVent Reduction study GISSI-AF : Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Atrial Fibrillation HbA1c : glycated haemoglobin HBPM : home blood pressure monitoring HOPE : Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation HOT : Hypertension Optimal Treatment HRT : hormone replacement therapy HT : hypertension HYVET : HYpertension in the Very Elderly Trial IMT : intima-media thickness I-PRESERVE : Irbesartan in Heart Failure with Preserved Systolic Function INTERHEART : Effect of Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors associated with Myocardial Infarction in 52 Countries INVEST : INternational VErapamil SR/T Trandolapril ISH : Isolated systolic hypertension JNC : Joint National Committee JUPITER : Justification for the Use of Statins in Primary Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin LAVi : left atrial volume index LIFE : Losartan Intervention For Endpoint Reduction in Hypertensives LV : left ventricle/left ventricular LVH : left ventricular hypertrophy LVM : left ventricular mass MDRD : Modification of Diet in Renal Disease MRFIT : Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial MRI : magnetic resonance imaging NORDIL : The Nordic Diltiazem Intervention study OC : oral contraceptive OD : organ damage ONTARGET : ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial PAD : peripheral artery disease PATHS : Prevention And Treatment of Hypertension Study PCI : percutaneous coronary intervention PPAR : peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PREVEND : Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENdstage Disease PROFESS : Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Secondary Strokes PROGRESS : Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study PWV : pulse wave velocity QALY : Quality adjusted life years RAA : renin-angiotensin-aldosterone RAS : renin-angiotensin system RCT : randomized controlled trials RF : risk factor ROADMAP : Randomized Olmesartan And Diabetes MicroAlbuminuria Prevention SBP : systolic blood pressure SCAST : Angiotensin-Receptor Blocker Candesartan for Treatment of Acute STroke SCOPE : Study on COgnition and Prognosis in the Elderly SCORE : Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation SHEP : Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program STOP : Swedish Trials in Old Patients with Hypertension STOP-2 : The second Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension SYSTCHINA : SYSTolic Hypertension in the Elderly: Chinese trial SYSTEUR : SYSTolic Hypertension in Europe TIA : transient ischaemic attack TOHP : Trials Of Hypertension Prevention TRANSCEND : Telmisartan Randomised AssessmeNt Study in ACE iNtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease UKPDS : United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study VADT : Veterans' Affairs Diabetes Trial VALUE : Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation WHO : World Health Organization ### 1.1 Principles The 2013 guidelines on hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and the European Society of Cardiology …
TL;DR: The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project provides new insights into the organization and regulation of the authors' genes and genome, and is an expansive resource of functional annotations for biomedical research.
Abstract: The human genome encodes the blueprint of life, but the function of the vast majority of its nearly three billion bases is unknown. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has systematically mapped regions of transcription, transcription factor association, chromatin structure and histone modification. These data enabled us to assign biochemical functions for 80% of the genome, in particular outside of the well-studied protein-coding regions. Many discovered candidate regulatory elements are physically associated with one another and with expressed genes, providing new insights into the mechanisms of gene regulation. The newly identified elements also show a statistical correspondence to sequence variants linked to human disease, and can thereby guide interpretation of this variation. Overall, the project provides new insights into the organization and regulation of our genes and genome, and is an expansive resource of functional annotations for biomedical research.
05 Mar 2015-Genetics in Medicine
TL;DR: Because of the increased complexity of analysis and interpretation of clinical genetic testing described in this report, the ACMG strongly recommends thatclinical molecular genetic testing should be performed in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments–approved laboratory, with results interpreted by a board-certified clinical molecular geneticist or molecular genetic pathologist or the equivalent.
Abstract: Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology