Author

# Eric W. Lemmon

Other affiliations: University of Idaho

Bio: Eric W. Lemmon is an academic researcher from National Institute of Standards and Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Equation of state & Vapor pressure. The author has an hindex of 41, co-authored 124 publications receiving 13880 citations. Previous affiliations of Eric W. Lemmon include University of Idaho.

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02 Apr 2007

3,356 citations

07 May 2013

904 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new formulation for the thermodynamic properties of nitrogen has been developed, which is valid from the triple point temperature to temperatures of 1000 K and up to pressures of 2200 MPa.

Abstract: A new formulation for the thermodynamic properties of nitrogen has been developed. Many new data sets have become available, including high accuracy data from single and dual-sinker apparatuses which improve the accuracy of the representation of the pρT surface of gaseous, liquid, and supercritical nitrogen, including the saturation states. New measurements of the speed of sound from spherical resonators yield accurate information on caloric properties in gaseous and supercritical nitrogen. Isochoric heat capacity and enthalpy data have also been published. Sophisticated procedures for the optimization of the mathematical structure of equations of state and special functional forms for an improved representation of data in the critical region were used. Constraints regarding the structure of the equation ensure reasonable results up to extreme conditions of temperature and pressure. For calibration applications, the new reference equation is supplemented by a simple but also accurate formulation, valid only for supercritical nitrogen between 250 and 350 K at pressures up to 30 MPa. The uncertainty in density of the new reference equation of state ranges from 0.02% at pressures less than 30 MPa up to 0.6% at very high pressures, except in the range from 270 to 350 K at pressures less than 12 MPa where the uncertainty in density is 0.01%. The equation is valid from the triple point temperature to temperatures of 1000 K and up to pressures of 2200 MPa. From 1000 to 1800 K, the equation was validated with data of limited accuracy. The extrapolation behavior beyond 1800 K is reasonable up to the limits of chemical stability of nitrogen, as indicated by comparison to experimental shock tube data.

697 citations

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TL;DR: It is provided evidence that this value of shear viscosity to volume density of entropy may serve as a lower bound for a wide class of systems, thus suggesting that black hole horizons are dual to the most ideal fluids.

Abstract: The ratio of shear viscosity to volume density of entropy can be used to characterize how close a given fluid is to being perfect. Using string theory methods, we show that this ratio is equal to a universal value of [h-bar]/4pikB for a large class of strongly interacting quantum field theories whose dual description involves black holes in anti–de Sitter space. We provide evidence that this value may serve as a lower bound for a wide class of systems, thus suggesting that black hole horizons are dual to the most ideal fluids.

2,721 citations

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2,687 citations

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

^{1}, California Institute of Technology^{2}, University of Toronto^{3}, University of Michigan^{4}, National Institute of Standards and Technology^{5}, Universities Space Research Association^{6}, Harvard University^{7}, Georgia Institute of Technology^{8}TL;DR: This is the eighteenth in a series of evaluated sets of rate constants, photochemical cross sections, heterogeneous parameters, and thermochemical parameters compiled by the NASA Panel for Data Evaluation as mentioned in this paper.

Abstract: This is the eighteenth in a series of evaluated sets of rate constants, photochemical cross sections, heterogeneous parameters, and thermochemical parameters compiled by the NASA Panel for Data Evaluation. The data are used primarily to model stratospheric and upper tropospheric processes, with particular emphasis on the ozone layer and its possible perturbation by anthropogenic and natural phenomena. The evaluation is available in electronic form from the following Internet URL: http://jpldataeval.jpl.nasa.gov/

1,830 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: A re-parameterization of the standard TIP4P water model for use with Ewald techniques is introduced, providing an overall global improvement in water properties relative to several popular nonpolarizable and polarizable water potentials.

Abstract: A re-parameterization of the standard TIP4P water model for use with Ewald techniques is introduced, providing an overall global improvement in water properties relative to several popular nonpolarizable and polarizable water potentials. Using high precision simulations, and careful application of standard analytical corrections, we show that the new TIP4P-Ew potential has a density maximum at approximately 1 degrees C, and reproduces experimental bulk-densities and the enthalpy of vaporization, DeltaH(vap), from -37.5 to 127 degrees C at 1 atm with an absolute average error of less than 1%. Structural properties are in very good agreement with x-ray scattering intensities at temperatures between 0 and 77 degrees C and dynamical properties such as self-diffusion coefficient are in excellent agreement with experiment. The parameterization approach used can be easily generalized to rehabilitate any water force field using available experimental data over a range of thermodynamic points.

1,741 citations

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TL;DR: A survey of all the state-of-the-art formulations of thermophysical properties is presented, finding the most-accurate thermodynamic properties are obtained from multiparameter Helmholtz-energy-explicit-type formulations.

Abstract: Over the last few decades, researchers have developed a number of empirical and theoretical models for the correlation and prediction of the thermophysical properties of pure fluids and mixtures treated as pseudo-pure fluids In this paper, a survey of all the state-of-the-art formulations of thermophysical properties is presented The most-accurate thermodynamic properties are obtained from multiparameter Helmholtz-energy-explicit-type formulations For the transport properties, a wider range of methods has been employed, including the extended corresponding states method All of the thermophysical property correlations described here have been implemented into CoolProp, an open-source thermophysical property library This library is written in C++, with wrappers available for the majority of programming languages and platforms of technical interest As of publication, 110 pure and pseudo-pure fluids are included in the library, as well as properties of 40 incompressible fluids and humid air The source code for the CoolProp library is included as an electronic annex

1,472 citations