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Erin K. Freeman

Bio: Erin K. Freeman is an academic researcher from University of Dallas. The author has contributed to research in topics: Extraversion and introversion & Personality. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 2 publications receiving 18 citations.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the relationship between extraversion and arousal procrastination and found that extraverts tend to seek external sources of arousal, while introverts are more likely than introverts to engage in avoidance.
Abstract: Procrastination is a prevalent and complex psychological phenomenon that has been defined as the purposive delay in beginning or completing a task. Given the potential implications for a broad range of situations, including both academic performance and safety sensitive occupations, it seems reasonable and judicious to systematically examine this phenomenon. While there is growing interest in procrastination, our understanding of underlying explanatory factors remains quite limited. Eysenck’s (1967) theory of personality, and in particular his biologically-based theory of extraversion, could shed light on this phenomenon. The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between extraversion and arousal procrastination. In accordance with Eysenck’s theory that extraverts tend to seek external sources of arousal, it was hypothesized that they would be more likely than introverts to engage in arousal procrastination. Participants completed a series of counterbalanced questionnaires measuring extraversion and procrastination. Results indicated that extraversion significantly predicted the engagement in this type of procrastination. Limitations, implications, and future research are discussed.

16 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a study of how individuals psychologically experience Holocaust-related exhibits or installations is presented. But such studies are relatively rare, in part because such investigations lie at the crossroads of Holocaust education and visitor or museum studies.
Abstract: Studies of how individuals psychologically experience Holocaust-related exhibits or installations are relatively rare, in part because such investigations lie at the crossroads of Holocaust education and visitor or museum studies. The current study arose out of a unique opportunity during which the authors’ university hosted a traveling exhibit of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Deadly Medicine: Creating the Master Race. One hundred and ninety-four participants responded to a qualitative question regarding the impact of the exhibit. A descriptive form of thematic analysis was used to identify patterns in the data, resulting in three superordinate themes (closed, open, and ambivalent engagement). These themes describe how participants oriented themselves toward the exhibit, negotiating a complex interplay that included a passive to active continuum. Our critical analysis suggests that it may be helpful to view participants as ambivalent or even contradictory human agents, struggling wi...

4 citations


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TL;DR: Novick as discussed by the authors argues that the Holocaust became more ubiquitous in American cultural and political life after 1968 than it had been in the postwar years, rejecting psychoanalytically informed accounts that explain this lag in terms of "trauma" or "repression."
Abstract: The Holocaust in American Life. By Peter Novick. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999. Pp. 1, 373. Cloth, $27.00) In this engaging and important study, Peter Novick undertakes two primary tasks: to offer an historical account of how the Holocaust became such a prominent feature of American cultural and political life, and to question the widely held assumption that this prominence is an inherently good thing. In addition to these goals, Novick seeks to debunk the claim that the Holocaust stands apart from other atrocities as a unique purveyor of moral lessons. Indeed, he takes his case one step further by contending that, in the end, the Holocaust may actually offer no moral lessons at all. In tracing the history of the Holocaust in American life, Novick is largely successful. Like other recent scholarship on this themes, Novick argues that, while Americans were not silent about Nazi atrocities during and immediately after the war, the "Holocaust" was not recognized as a discrete historical event until decades later. In contending that the Holocaust became more ubiquitous in American cultural and political life after 1968 than it had been in the postwar years, Novick rejects psychoanalytically informed accounts that explain this lag in terms of "trauma" or "repression." Drawing on a wide range of published and unpublished sources, Novick argues that in the years following World War II, public discussion of the Holocaust was muted because it ran counter not only to the aims of organized American Jewry, but to the broader cultural and political climate of postwar America. The demands of the Cold War and the new alliance between Germany and the United States required that Stalinism, rather than the Holocaust, be cast as the most damning crime of the modern age. Leaders of the American Jewish community promulgated this view and were largely silent about the Holocaust in an attempt to dispel stereotypes that identified Jews with both Bolshevism and eternal victimhood. An excessive public preoccupation with the Holocaust was seen as incompatible with a rapidly assimilating American Jewish community, determined to participate fully in euphoric postwar prosperity. While the destruction of European Jewry was surely a "widely shared Jewish sorrow" during these years, it was, according to Novick, a sorrow shared largely in private. By the mid-1960s, this had begun to change. Novick cites the 1961 trial of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann and the subsequent publication of Hannah Arendt's controversial Eichmann in Jerusalem as two of the major catalysts for a growing public discussion of the Holocaust. A less obvious claim is that the heightened public preoccupation with the Holocaust in the late 1960s and 1970s coincided with the birth of identity politics, reflecting both a broader shift away from an integrationist ethos to a particularist one, and the growth of a "victim culture" that increasingly valorized oppression and suffering over heroism. While not everyone may agree with Novick's implicitly critical definition of identity politics, this is an important dimension of his argument, for it offers a compelling, if only partial explanation for the ubiquity of the Holocaust in contemporary American life. It was only within a political culture that valorized victimization that the Holocaust could become the locus of so many strong and contradictory feelings, including possessiveness, proprietariness, envy, and resentment. Novick is also interested in how, by the late 1960s, a growing public Holocaust discourse reflected the shifting priorities of organized American Jewry, and here, too, he offers an illuminating account of how Jewish leaders once reticent about the Holocaust were now placing it at the top of their political agendas. In their concern over escalating rates of intermarriage and waning interest in organized Judaism, leaders now seized on the Holocaust in order to shore up a sense of American Jewish identity and to caution American Jews against the dangers of complacency. …

736 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Procrastination refers to a prevalent self-regulatory failure that alludes to deferring necessary actions required to successfully complete tasks on time, and instead engaging in activities that are more rewarding with short term over long term gains as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Procrastination refers to a prevalent self-regulatory failure that alludes to deferring necessary actions required to successfully complete tasks on time, and instead engaging in activities that are more rewarding with short term over long term gains (Aremu, Williams, & Adesina, 2011). Procrastination is identified as one of the least understood minor human miseries and a complex psychological phenomenon that not only leads to psychological distress, but also shows significant links to lower levels of health, wealth, and well-being (Balkis & Duru, 2007; Steel & Ferrari, 2013). Approximately, 20-25% of adult men and women living around the world are indulged in chronic procrastination in various domains like academic, social relationships, professional, and finance management (Balkis & Duru, 2007; Ferrari & Diaz-Morales, 2014). Some of the identified factors closely associated with procrastination include evaluation anxiety, task aversiveness, task delay, low self-efficacy, lack of persistence, dependence, fear of failure, negative evaluation, irrational beliefs, learned helplessness, and perfectionism (Schubert & Stewart, 2000; Steel, 2007; Steel & Ferrari, 2013). Procrastination tendencies also give rise to poor self-esteem, poor self-confidence, anxiety, public and private self-consciousness, and concerns over public image (Ferrari, 2001). The prevalence, predictors, causes, treatments, and implications of procrastination behavioral patterns in general, academic, and work settings are reviewed.

33 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the dark triad of personality (i.e., narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy) in relation to two types of procrastination styles, arousal and avoidance, in an online survey with 369 participants.

30 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings underlined the crucial role played by learning strategies in predicting the tendency to delay decisional situations and in mediating the relationship between metacognitive beliefs aboutprocrastination and decisional procrastination.
Abstract: Nowadays, university students suffer from a broad range of problems, such as educational underachievement or the inability to control themselves, that lead to procrastination as a consequence. The present research aimed at analyzing the determinants of decisional procrastination among undergraduate students and at assessing a path model in which self regulated learning strategies mediated the relationship between metacognitive beliefs about procrastination and decisional procrastination. 273 students from Southern Italy filled out a questionnaire composed by: the socio-demographic section, the Metacognitive Beliefs About Procrastination Questionnaire, the procrastination subscale of the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, and the Anxiety, the Time Management, and the Information Processing subscales of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory. Results showed that the relationship between negative and positive metacognitive beliefs about procrastination and decisional procrastination was mediated only by time management and anxiety. Such findings underlined the crucial role played by learning strategies in predicting the tendency to delay decisional situations and in mediating the relationship between metacognitive beliefs about procrastination and decisional procrastination.

20 citations