Fairolniza Mohd Shariff
Bio: Fairolniza Mohd Shariff is an academic researcher from Universiti Putra Malaysia. The author has contributed to research in topics: Lipase & Thermostability. The author has an hindex of 11, co-authored 24 publications receiving 282 citations.
TL;DR: Cold-evolved lipases from bacteria and their peculiar properties, in addition to their potential biotechnological and industrial applications, are discussed.
Abstract: Psychrophilic microorganisms are cold-adapted with distinct properties from other thermal classes thriving in cold conditions in large areas of the earth's cold environment. Maintenance of functional membranes, evolving cold-adapted enzymes and synthesizing a range of structural features are basic adaptive strategies of psychrophiles. Among the cold-evolved enzymes are the cold-active lipases, a group of microbial lipases with inherent stability-activity-flexibility property that have engaged the interest of researchers over the years. Current knowledge regarding these cold-evolved enzymes in psychrophilic bacteria proves a display of high catalytic efficiency with low thermal stability, which is a differentiating feature with that of their mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts. Improvement strategies of their adaptive structural features have significantly benefited the enzyme industry. Based on their homogeneity and purity, molecular characterizations of these enzymes have been successful and their properties make them unique biocatalysts for various industrial and biotechnological applications. Although, strong association of lipopolysaccharides from Antarctic microorganisms with lipid hydrolases pose a challenge in their purification, heterologous expression of the cold-adapted lipases with affinity tags simplifies purification with higher yield. The review discusses these cold-evolved lipases from bacteria and their peculiar properties, in addition to their potential biotechnological and industrial applications.
TL;DR: The significance of laccase immobilization is highlighted and some of the challenges and opportunities of this technology are pointed out as a revolutionary biocatalytic solution to this environmental problem.
Abstract: The world today is in a quest for new means of environmental remediation as the methods currently used are not sufficient to halt the damage. Mostly, a global direction is headed toward a shift from traditional chemical-based methods to a more ecofriendly alternative. In this context, biocatalysis is seen as a cost-effective, energy saving, and clean alternative. It is meant to catalyze degradation of recalcitrant chemicals in an easy, rapid, green, and sustainable manner. One already established application of biocatalysis is the removal of dyes from natural water bodies using enzymes, notably oxidoreductases like laccases, due to their wide range of substrate specificity. In order to boost their catalytic activity, various methods of enhancements have been pursued including immobilization of the enzyme on different support materials. Aside from increased catalysis, immobilized laccases have the advantages of higher stability, better durability against harsh environment conditions, longer half-lives, resistance against protease enzymes, and the ability to be recovered for reuse. This review briefly outlines the current methods used for detoxification and decolorization of dye effluents stressing on the importance of laccases as a revolutionary biocatalytic solution to this environmental problem. This work highlights the significance of laccase immobilization and also points out some of the challenges and opportunities of this technology.
TL;DR: Recombinant lipase was successfully overexpressed with a 178-fold increase in activity compared to crude native L2 lipase, and Lipase L2 was strongly inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (100%), whereas phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), pepstatin-A, 2-mercaptoethanol and DTT inhibited the enzyme by over 40%.
Abstract: A thermophilic lipolytic bacterium identified as Bacillus sp. L2 via 16S rDNA was previously isolated from a hot spring in Perak, Malaysia. Bacillus sp. L2 was confirmed to be in Group 5 of bacterial classification, a phylogenically and phenotypically coherent group of thermophilic bacilli displaying very high similarity among their 16S rRNA sequences (98.5–99.2%). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cloning of L2 lipase gene was conducted by using five different primers. Sequence analysis of the L2 lipase gene revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 1251 bp that codes for 417 amino acids. The signal peptides consist of 28 amino acids. The mature protein is made of 388 amino acid residues. Recombinant lipase was successfully overexpressed with a 178-fold increase in activity compared to crude native L2 lipase. The recombinant L2 lipase (43.2 kDa) was purified to homogeneity in a single chromatography step. The purified lipase was found to be reactive at a temperature range of 55–80 °C and at a pH of 6–10. The L2 lipase had a melting temperature (Tm) of 59.04 °C when analyzed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy studies. The optimum activity was found to be at 70 °C and pH 9. Lipase L2 was strongly inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (100%), whereas phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), pepstatin-A, 2-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol (DTT) inhibited the enzyme by over 40%. The CD spectra of secondary structure analysis showed that the L2 lipase structure contained 38.6% α-helices, 2.2% s-strands, 23.6% turns and 35.6% random conformations.
TL;DR: Immobilized enzymes are enzymes physically confined in a particularly defined region with retention to their catalytic activities, which provides a higher pH value and thermal stability for enzymes toward synthesis and facilitates enzymes used in a continuous process.
Abstract: Four major enzymes commonly used in the market are lipases, proteases, amylases, and cellulases For instance, in both academic and industrial levels, microbial lipases have been well studied for industrial and biotechnological applications compared to others Immobilization is done to minimize the cost The improvement of enzyme properties enables the reusability of enzymes and facilitates enzymes used in a continuous process Immobilized enzymes are enzymes physically confined in a particularly defined region with retention to their catalytic activities Immobilized enzymes can be used repeatedly compared to free enzymes, which are unable to catalyze reactions continuously in the system Immobilization also provides a higher pH value and thermal stability for enzymes toward synthesis The main parameter influencing the immobilization is the support used to immobilize the enzyme The support should have a large surface area, high rigidity, suitable shape and particle size, reusability, and resistance to microbial attachment, which will enhance the stability of the enzyme The diffusion of the substrate in the carrier is more favorable on hydrophobic supports instead of hydrophilic supports The methods used for enzyme immobilization also play a crucial role in immobilization performance The combination of immobilization methods will increase the binding force between enzymes and the support, thus reducing the leakage of the enzymes from the support The adsorption of lipase on a hydrophobic support causes the interfacial activation of lipase during immobilization The adsorption method also causes less or no change in enzyme conformation, especially on the active site of the enzyme Thus, this method is the most used in the immobilization process for industrial applications
TL;DR: This study focuses on bacterial strains isolated from anthropogenically-influenced soil samples collected around Signy Island Research Station, and found the highest level of sequence similarity to a Pseudomonas sp.
Abstract: In recent years, studies on psychrophilic lipases have been an emerging area of research in the field of enzymology. This study focuses on bacterial strains isolated from anthropogenically-influenced soil samples collected around Signy Island Research Station (South Orkney Islands, maritime Antarctic). Limited information on lipase activities from bacteria isolated from Signy station is currently available. The presence of lipase genes was determined using real time quantification PCR (qPCR) in samples obtained from three different locations on Signy Island. Twenty strains from the location with highest lipase gene detection were screened for lipolytic activities at a temperature of 4 °C, and from this one strain was selected for further examination based on the highest enzymatic activities obtained. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequence data of this strain showed the highest level of sequence similarity (98%) to a Pseudomonas sp. strain also isolated from Antarctica. In order to increase lipase production of this psychrophilic strain, optimisation of different parameters of physical and nutritional factors were investigated. Optimal production was obtained at 10 °C and pH 7.0, at 150 rev/min shaking rate over 36 h incubation.
TL;DR: Opportunities and challenges for expanding the applicability of targeted protein degradation are discussed, with a focus on the large family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that have a key role in the process.
Abstract: Proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) and related molecules that induce targeted protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system represent a new therapeutic modality and are the focus of great interest, owing to potential advantages over traditional occupancy-based inhibitors with respect to dosing, side effects, drug resistance and modulating 'undruggable' targets. However, the technology is still maturing, and the design elements for successful PROTAC-based drugs are currently being elucidated. Importantly, fewer than 10 of the more than 600 E3 ubiquitin ligases have so far been exploited for targeted protein degradation, and expansion of knowledge in this area is a key opportunity. Here, we briefly discuss lessons learned about targeted protein degradation in chemical biology and drug discovery and systematically review the expression profile, domain architecture and chemical tractability of human E3 ligases that could expand the toolbox for PROTAC discovery.
TL;DR: The most important microbial lipase-producing strains for submerged and solid-state fermentations are reviewed as well as the main substrates, including the use of agroindustrial residues.
Abstract: This review paper provides an overview regarding the main aspects of microbial lipases production. The most important microbial lipase-producing strains for submerged and solid-state fermentations are reviewed as well as the main substrates, including the use of agroindustrial residues. Current process techniques (batch, repeated-batch, fed-batch, and continuous mode) are discussed and the main bioreactors configurations are also presented. Furthermore, the present review paper shows a general overview about the development of mathematical models applied to lipase production. Finally, some future perspectives on lipase production are discussed with special emphasis on lipase engineering and the use of mathematical models as a useful tool for process improvement and control.
TL;DR: The present review aims at giving the latest and broadest overall picture of research and development on lipases by including the current studies and progressions not only in the diverse industrial application fields of lipases, but also with regard to its structure, classification and sources.
Abstract: Lipases are the industrially important biocatalysts, which are envisioned to have tremendous applications in the manufacture of a wide range of products. Their unique properties such as better stability, selectivity and substrate specificity position them as the most expansively used industrial enzymes. The research on production and applications of lipases is ever growing and there exists a need to have a latest review on the research findings of lipases. The present review aims at giving the latest and broadest overall picture of research and development on lipases by including the current studies and progressions not only in the diverse industrial application fields of lipases, but also with regard to its structure, classification and sources. Also, a special emphasis has been made on the aspects such as process optimization, modeling, and design that are very critical for further scale-up and industrial implementation. The detailed tabulations provided in each section, which are prepared by the exhaustive review of current literature covering the various aspects of lipase including its production and applications along with example case studies, will serve as the comprehensive source of current advancements in lipase research. This review will be very useful for the researchers from both industry as well as academia in promoting lipolysis as the most promising approaches to intensified, greener and sustainable processes. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 34:5-28, 2018.
TL;DR: The progress made in the overexpression and purification of cold-adapted enzymes is addressed, the evolutionary and molecular basis of their high activity at low temperatures and the experimental and computational techniques used for their identification, along with protein engineering endeavors to improve some of the properties ofcold- Adapted enzymes to better suit specific applications.
Abstract: Cold-active enzymes constitute an attractive resource for biotechnological applications. Their high catalytic activity at temperatures below 25 oC makes them excellent biocatalysts that eliminate the need of heating processes hampering the quality, sustainability and cost-effectiveness of industrial production. Here we provide a review of the isolation and characterization of novel cold-active enzymes from microorganisms inhabiting different environments, including a revision of the latest techniques that have been used for accomplishing these paramount tasks. We address the progress made in the overexpression and purification of cold-adapted enzymes, the evolutionary and molecular basis of their high activity at low temperatures and the experimental and computational techniques used for their identification, along with protein engineering endeavors based on these observations to improve some of the properties of cold-adapted enzymes to better suit specific applications. We finally focus on examples of the evaluation of their potential use as biocatalysts under conditions that reproduce the challenges imposed by the use of solvents and additives in industrial processes and of the successful use of cold-adapted enzymes in biotechnological and industrial applications.
TL;DR: Bacterial lipases have been extensively studied during last decade, however, their wider applications demand a detailed review on purification, catalytic characterization and applications of lipases.
Abstract: Lipase (E.C.22.214.171.124) belongs to the hydrolases and is also known as fat splitting, glycerol ester hydrolase or triacylglycerol acylhydrolase. Lipase catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides converting them to glycerol and fatty acids in an oil-water interface. These are widely used in food, dairy, flavor, pharmaceuticals, biofuels, leather, cosmetics, detergent, and chemical industries. Lipases are of plant, animal, and microbial origin, but microbial lipases are produced at industrial level and represent the most widely used class of enzymes in biotechnological applications and organic chemistry. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison of residues around GxSxG motif provided an insight to the diversity among bacterial lipases. A variety of para-Nitrophenyl (p-NP) esters having C2 to C16 (p-NP acetate to p-NP palmitate) in their fatty acid side chain can be hydrolyzed by bacterial lipases. Large heterogeneity has been observed in molecular and catalytic characteristics of lipases including molecular mass; 19–96 kDa, Km; 0.0064–16.58 mM, Kcat; 0.1665–1.0 × 104 s−1 and Kcat/Km; 26.02–7377 s-1/mM. Optimal conditions of their working temperature and pH have been stated 15–70 °C and 5.0–10.8, respectively and are strongly associated with the type and growth conditions of bacteria. Surface hydrophobicity, enzyme activity, stability in organic solvents and at high temperature, proteolytic resistance and substrate tolerance are the properties of bacterial lipases that have been improved by engineering. Bacterial lipases have been extensively studied during last decade. However, their wider applications demand a detailed review on purification, catalytic characterization and applications of lipases.