Fatima A. M. Lino
Bio: Fatima A. M. Lino is an academic researcher from State University of Campinas. The author has contributed to research in topics: Municipal solid waste & Airfoil. The author has an hindex of 10, co-authored 33 publications receiving 403 citations.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of radial fin and turbulence promoters on the enhancement of phase change heat transfer external to a horizontal tube submersed in the PCM with the working fluid flowing through it were investigated.
Abstract: One of the serious problems associated with the operation of PCM storage system is the heat transfer in and out of the element containing the PCM. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the effects of radial fins and turbulence promoters on the enhancement of phase change heat transfer external to a horizontal tube submersed in the PCM with the working fluid flowing through it. The experimental measurements were realized on a bare cupper tube and an identical cupper tube fitted with radial fins. The fins investigated are 40, 60, 120 and 180 mm diameters. A turbulence promoter made of stainless steel wire of 1.0 mm diameter coiled in a helical form with a pitch of 25.0 mm was inserted into the cupper tubes. The tests were realized on bare tubes, finned tubes and finned tubes with the turbulence promoter inserted into the finned tubes. The measurements were realized for the working fluid temperatures in the range of −10 °C, to −25 °C and six values of the mass flow rate ranging from 0.013 to 0.031 kg/s. The position of the phase interface was photographed by a high resolution digital camera and scanned to determine the real interface position by comparison with a precision measuring scale. The results of the phase interface position, velocity of the interface, solidified mass fraction and the time for complete solidification are presented in function of the working fluid temperature, the working fluid mass and the tube arrangements. The results are presented and discussed.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the energy savings and avoided emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere as a result of recycling and production of biogas from landfills in one metropolitan with more than one million inhabitants and in Brazil.
Abstract: The economic progress and sustainable developments are linked to the optimization and energy conservation. Conventional methods of production and energy utilization usually embed harmful environmental impacts, and hence the challenge to scientists to seek for mechanisms of energy production and use which are less harmful or better still free of unfavorable environmental impacts. Studies point out that municipal solid waste has great energy potential and its reuse, specifically the production of biogas from landfills and the recycling of solid waste presents a favorable mechanism to optimize energy use and preserve it. The present investigation includes the energy savings and the avoided emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere as a result of recycling and production of biogas from landfills in one metropolitan with more than one million inhabitants and in Brazil. The results show that the rate of CH4 production from the Brazilian waste landfills can avail for Brazil about 41.7 MW and the reuse of recyclables can avail to the energy system an additional quantity of 286 GJ/month enough for the consumption of 318,000 families.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors presented the results of a numerical study validated by experimental measurements on the solidification of PCM along a horizontal tube by using the boundary immobilization technique.
Abstract: This paper presents the results of a numerical study validated by experimental measurements on the solidification of PCM along a horizontal tube by using the boundary immobilization technique. The two dimensional model (r,z) of the phase change problem is formulated based on the energy equation and the Landau transform which transforms the moving irregular interfaces to fixed parallel interfaces. The finite volume method is used to discretize the system of equations and the associated boundary and initial conditions. A computer program was elaborated and the time and space grids were optimized to make the numerical solution insensitive to the grid size. The model was validated against experimental and numerical results available in the literature and good agreement was found. Additional results were obtained and the numerical predictions were found to agree well with the new measurements showing that the immobilization technique is adequate to handle phase change problems.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented a scenario for the treatment of municipal solid waste based on recycling and incineration and evaluated the energy, economic and environmental potentials in Campinas, the third largest city in Brazil with population over one million inhabitants.
Abstract: One of the biggest challenges for developing countries such as Brazil is the adequate management of urban solid waste In Campinas, the third-largest city in the state of Sao Paulo with population over one million inhabitants, the treatment of solid waste turned to be a serious problem since 2014 The daily collection of municipal solid waste (MSW) is 1304 t of which only 25% is selectively collected, the rest of MSW is landfilled in a neighboring city 40 km distant from Campinas This paper presents a scenario for the treatment of MSW based on recycling and incineration and evaluates the energy, economic and environmental potentials In this scenario, a selective collection index of 20% is adopted and the rest of MSW is incinerated with energy recovery Results show that incineration can generate electrical energy sufficient for 135,680 homes and can render about US$ 5799 × 106 per month The benefits from the selective collection index of 20% of the potentially available recyclables include a financial return of about US$ 302,412 per month equivalent to 1120 national minimum salary, energy savings equivalent to 694 MW and avoided emissions of about 14577 ktCO2/year equivalent to 62% of the total emissions of Campinas
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the environmental impact of the selective collection of solid waste from an energy saving point of view and showed that about 10,900 l of diesel oil is used to collect 329 ton/month of recyclables.
Abstract: The inclusion of selective collection of urban residual solids in the public policies is an issue adopted by many countries as a mean for reducing the impacts created by solid waste generation and destination. In Brazil, the selective collection of solid waste was implemented in Campinas, in 1991. The city is the third biggest in the state of Sao Paulo and has a population of about a million inhabitants. The amount of recyclable matter amounts to 1% of the mixed solid waste collected by the public service and deposited in sanitary landfills. In the present study, reports and data forwarded by the municipality public service and the private cooperative units regarding the selective collection of solid waste are analyzed from the energy saving view point. The analysis showed that about 10,900 l of diesel oil are used to collect 329 ton/month of recyclables. The resulting energy economy is about 32 times the fuel energy used by the collecting trucks in the same period. This amount of recyclables led to an energy economy of 12,552 GJ/month, enough for a monthly equivalent electric consumption of 4000 residences.
01 Jan 2016
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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors have illustrated MSW generation and composition analysis and have provided a comprehensive review of MSWM in different countries throughout the world based on different countries' characteristics and characteristics.
Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) is the abridgment of the waste generated from domestic, commercial, and construction activities by natural persons that is collected and treated by municipalities. Exponential growth of population and urbanization, and the development of social economy, coupled with the improvement of living standard, have resulted in an increase in the amount of MSW generation throughout the world. On average the developed countries typically generate 521.95–759.2 kg per person per year (kpc) and 109.5–525.6 kpc typically by developing countries. Recent estimates suggest that the MSW generation globally exceeds 2 billion tons per year, which is a potential threat to environmental dilapidation. Therefore, MSW management (MSWM) seems to be one of the key topics for environmental protection in present days and also in the future. The authors have illustrated MSW generation and composition analysis and have provided a comprehensive review of MSWM in different countries throughout the world based o...
TL;DR: In this article, a hybrid material based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and form-stable polymer phase change materials (PCMs) is reported.
Abstract: The development of solar energy conversion materials is critical to the growth of a sustainable energy infrastructure in the coming years. A novel hybrid material based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and form-stable polymer phase change materials (PCMs) is reported. The obtained materials have UV-vis sunlight harvesting, light-thermal conversion, thermal energy storage, and form-stable effects. Judicious application of this efficient photothermal conversion to SWNTs has opened up a rich field of energy materials based on novel SWNT/PCM composits with enhanced performance in energy conversion and storage.
TL;DR: In this article, the melting process in a shell-and-tube latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) unit with annular fins was investigated and commercial grade paraffin was employed as the p...
Abstract: This study conducts numerical investigations on melting process in a shell-and-tube latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) unit with annular fins. Commercial grade paraffin is employed as the p ...
TL;DR: In this article, phase change material (PCM) melting in a transparent rectangular enclosure with and without horizontal partial fins was performed with wall temperatures of 55, 60 and 70°C.
Abstract: This paper presents an experimental investigation of phase change material (PCM) melting in a transparent rectangular enclosure with and without horizontal partial fins. The enclosure was heated isothermally from one side while the other walls were thermally insulated. Experiments were performed with wall temperatures of 55, 60 and 70 °C ( 3.6 × 10 8 ⩽ Ra ⩽ 8.3 × 10 8 ) for finned and unfinned enclosures. Visualization of the melting process and the temperature field were performed directly. Both qualitative and quantitative information about the melting phenomena were obtained using digital photographs of the instantaneous melt front evolutions and temperature recordings at the vertical mid-plane of the enclosure. Temperature histories revealed that the thermally stratified region became smaller as the number of fins increased. Experimental data were used to calculate melt fractions, heat transfer rates and Nusselt numbers during the melting process. Furthermore, two correlation equations were developed using the dimensionless parameters to predict the Nusselt number and melt fraction. Also, in order to evaluate the improved thermal performance of the enclosure in the presence of partial fins, two other parameters were defined, melting enhancement ratio and overall fin effectiveness. Experimental results indicated that increasing the number of fins decreased the melting time and increased the total heat transfer rate while the surface-averaged Nusselt number reduced. Melting enhancement ratio and overall fin effectiveness increased with increasing the number of fins and decreased with raising the wall temperature. Melting enhancement ratios decreased with time after reaching some maximum values indicating that partial fins are more beneficial during the initial time of the melting.