Fernando De la Torre
Other affiliations: La Salle University, Carnegie Mellon University, Ramon Llull University ...read more
Bio: Fernando De la Torre is an academic researcher from Facebook. The author has contributed to research in topics: Support vector machine & Discriminative model. The author has an hindex of 55, co-authored 186 publications receiving 12896 citations. Previous affiliations of Fernando De la Torre include La Salle University & Carnegie Mellon University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
••23 Jun 2013
TL;DR: A Supervised Descent Method (SDM) is proposed for minimizing a Non-linear Least Squares (NLS) function and achieves state-of-the-art performance in the problem of facial feature detection.
Abstract: Many computer vision problems (e.g., camera calibration, image alignment, structure from motion) are solved through a nonlinear optimization method. It is generally accepted that 2nd order descent methods are the most robust, fast and reliable approaches for nonlinear optimization of a general smooth function. However, in the context of computer vision, 2nd order descent methods have two main drawbacks: (1) The function might not be analytically differentiable and numerical approximations are impractical. (2) The Hessian might be large and not positive definite. To address these issues, this paper proposes a Supervised Descent Method (SDM) for minimizing a Non-linear Least Squares (NLS) function. During training, the SDM learns a sequence of descent directions that minimizes the mean of NLS functions sampled at different points. In testing, SDM minimizes the NLS objective using the learned descent directions without computing the Jacobian nor the Hessian. We illustrate the benefits of our approach in synthetic and real examples, and show how SDM achieves state-of-the-art performance in the problem of facial feature detection. The code is available at www.humansensing.cs. cmu.edu/intraface.
TL;DR: The theory of Robust Subspace Learning (RSL) for linear models within a continuous optimization framework based on robust M-estimation is developed and applies to a variety of linear learning problems in computer vision including eigen-analysis and structure from motion.
Abstract: Many computer vision, signal processing and statistical problems can be posed as problems of learning low dimensional linear or multi-linear models These models have been widely used for the representation of shape, appearance, motion, etc, in computer vision applications Methods for learning linear models can be seen as a special case of subspace fitting One draw-back of previous learning methods is that they are based on least squares estimation techniques and hence fail to account for “outliers” which are common in realistic training sets We review previous approaches for making linear learning methods robust to outliers and present a new method that uses an intra-sample outlier process to account for pixel outliers We develop the theory of Robust Subspace Learning (RSL) for linear models within a continuous optimization framework based on robust M-estimation The framework applies to a variety of linear learning problems in computer vision including eigen-analysis and structure from motion Several synthetic and natural examples are used to develop and illustrate the theory and applications of robust subspace learning in computer vision
••02 Sep 2013
TL;DR: The findings suggest that skew is a critical factor in evaluating performance metrics and to avoid or minimize skew-biased estimates of performance, it is recommended to report skew-normalized scores along with the obtained ones.
Abstract: Recognizing facial action units (AUs) is important for situation analysis and automated video annotation. Previous work has emphasized face tracking and registration and the choice of features classifiers. Relatively neglected is the effect of imbalanced data for action unit detection. While the machine learning community has become aware of the problem of skewed data for training classifiers, little attention has been paid to how skew may bias performance metrics. To address this question, we conducted experiments using both simulated classifiers and three major databases that differ in size, type of FACS coding, and degree of skew. We evaluated influence of skew on both threshold metrics (Accuracy, F-score, Cohen's kappa, and Krippendorf's alpha) and rank metrics (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and precision-recall curve). With exception of area under the ROC curve, all were attenuated by skewed distributions, in many cases, dramatically so. While ROC was unaffected by skew, precision-recall curves suggest that ROC may mask poor performance. Our findings suggest that skew is a critical factor in evaluating performance metrics. To avoid or minimize skew-biased estimates of performance, we recommend reporting skew-normalized scores along with the obtained ones.
01 Jan 2011
TL;DR: This chapter reviews fundamental approaches to facial measurement by behavioral scientists and current efforts in automated facial expression recognition, and considers challenges, databases available to the research community, approaches to feature detection, tracking, and representation, and both supervised and unsupervised learning.
Abstract: The face is one of the most powerful channels of nonverbal communication. Facial expression provides cues about emotion, intention, alertness, pain, personality, regulates interpersonal behavior, and communicates psychiatric and biomedical status among other functions. Within the past 15 years, there has been increasing interest in automated facial expression analysis within the computer vision and machine learning communities. This chapter reviews fundamental approaches to facial measurement by behavioral scientists and current efforts in automated facial expression recognition. We consider challenges, review databases available to the research community, approaches to feature detection, tracking, and representation, and both supervised and unsupervised learning. keywords : Facial expression analysis, Action unit recognition, Active Appearance Models, temporal clustering.
••08 Dec 2009
TL;DR: The findings suggest the feasibility of automatic detection of depression, raise new issues in automated facial image analysis and machine learning, and have exciting implications for clinical theory and practice.
Abstract: Current methods of assessing psychopathology depend almost entirely on verbal report (clinical interview or questionnaire) of patients, their family, or caregivers. They lack systematic and efficient ways of incorporating behavioral observations that are strong indicators of psychological disorder, much of which may occur outside the awareness of either individual. We compared clinical diagnosis of major depression with automatically measured facial actions and vocal prosody in patients undergoing treatment for depression. Manual FACS coding, active appearance modeling (AAM) and pitch extraction were used to measure facial and vocal expression. Classifiers using leave-one-out validation were SVM for FACS and for AAM and logistic regression for voice. Both face and voice demonstrated moderate concurrent validity with depression. Accuracy in detecting depression was 88% for manual FACS and 79% for AAM. Accuracy for vocal prosody was 79%. These findings suggest the feasibility of automatic detection of depression, raise new issues in automated facial image analysis and machine learning, and have exciting implications for clinical theory and practice.
••07 Jun 2015
TL;DR: Inception as mentioned in this paper is a deep convolutional neural network architecture that achieves the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC14).
Abstract: We propose a deep convolutional neural network architecture codenamed Inception that achieves the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC14). The main hallmark of this architecture is the improved utilization of the computing resources inside the network. By a carefully crafted design, we increased the depth and width of the network while keeping the computational budget constant. To optimize quality, the architectural decisions were based on the Hebbian principle and the intuition of multi-scale processing. One particular incarnation used in our submission for ILSVRC14 is called GoogLeNet, a 22 layers deep network, the quality of which is assessed in the context of classification and detection.
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Probability distributions of linear models for regression and classification are given in this article, along with a discussion of combining models and combining models in the context of machine learning and classification.
Abstract: Probability Distributions.- Linear Models for Regression.- Linear Models for Classification.- Neural Networks.- Kernel Methods.- Sparse Kernel Machines.- Graphical Models.- Mixture Models and EM.- Approximate Inference.- Sampling Methods.- Continuous Latent Variables.- Sequential Data.- Combining Models.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors prove that under some suitable assumptions, it is possible to recover both the low-rank and the sparse components exactly by solving a very convenient convex program called Principal Component Pursuit; among all feasible decompositions, simply minimize a weighted combination of the nuclear norm and of the e1 norm.
Abstract: This article is about a curious phenomenon. Suppose we have a data matrix, which is the superposition of a low-rank component and a sparse component. Can we recover each component individuallyq We prove that under some suitable assumptions, it is possible to recover both the low-rank and the sparse components exactly by solving a very convenient convex program called Principal Component Pursuit; among all feasible decompositions, simply minimize a weighted combination of the nuclear norm and of the e1 norm. This suggests the possibility of a principled approach to robust principal component analysis since our methodology and results assert that one can recover the principal components of a data matrix even though a positive fraction of its entries are arbitrarily corrupted. This extends to the situation where a fraction of the entries are missing as well. We discuss an algorithm for solving this optimization problem, and present applications in the area of video surveillance, where our methodology allows for the detection of objects in a cluttered background, and in the area of face recognition, where it offers a principled way of removing shadows and specularities in images of faces.
01 Feb 1977
TL;DR: The basic ideas of PCA are introduced, discussing what it can and cannot do, and some variants of the technique have been developed that are tailored to various different data types and structures.
Abstract: Large datasets are increasingly common and are often difficult to interpret. Principal component analysis (PCA) is a technique for reducing the dimensionality of such datasets, increasing interpretability but at the same time minimizing information loss. It does so by creating new uncorrelated variables that successively maximize variance. Finding such new variables, the principal components, reduces to solving an eigenvalue/eigenvector problem, and the new variables are defined by the dataset at hand, not a priori , hence making PCA an adaptive data analysis technique. It is adaptive in another sense too, since variants of the technique have been developed that are tailored to various different data types and structures. This article will begin by introducing the basic ideas of PCA, discussing what it can and cannot do. It will then describe some variants of PCA and their application.