Fernando Osvaldo Esteban
Other affiliations: University of Buenos Aires, Autonomous University of Barcelona, University of Salamanca
Bio: Fernando Osvaldo Esteban is an academic researcher from University of Valencia. The author has contributed to research in topics: Emigration & Population. The author has an hindex of 5, co-authored 26 publications receiving 104 citations. Previous affiliations of Fernando Osvaldo Esteban include University of Buenos Aires & Autonomous University of Barcelona.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the results of a study that links information from the prison system with information from Spanish Social Security System in order to study the employability of former inmat...
Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study that links information from the prison system with information from the Spanish Social Security System in order to study the employability of former inmat...
TL;DR: In this article, the most important trends in the history of Argentina: the massive European immigration, internal migrations, and immigration from neighbouring countries are reviewed through the development of a typology of migration flows.
Abstract: Through the development of a typology of migration flows, the paper reviews the most important trends in the history of Argentina: the massive European immigration, internal migrations, and immigration from neighbouring countries. The paper then discuss the current process of emigration from Argentina, and the return of old immigrants. The paper assess the economic factors involved through an analysis of unemployment, poverty and income distribution indicators in recent years. Finally, the paper examines the possibility of diminishing the recent emigration trend due to economic reasons.
TL;DR: The fenomeno de la llegada cada vez mas numerosa de argentinos to Espana desde la segunda mitad de la decada de 1960 hasta el aluvion posterior a 1997, cuya magnitud y consecuencias aun son dificiles de evaluar.
Abstract: Se estudia el fenomeno de la llegada cada vez mas numerosa de argentinos a Espana desde la segunda mitad de la decada de 1960 hasta el aluvion posterior a 1997, cuya magnitud y consecuencias aun son dificiles de evaluar. Plantea una cronologia, de acuerdo a las causas de la salida, y procura indagar en los cambios que ha sufrido el perfil de los emigrantes argentinos que se dirigieron a Espana a lo largo de estos 40 anos. Fenomeno paradojico, porque sociedad argentina fue creada por un aluvion inmigratorio, y dramatico, porque los ultimos arribos nos hablan de gente que abandona su tierra en respuesta a una falta total de expectativas y una situacion economica insostenible, a pesar de la frecuente caracterizacion de Argentina como pais dotado con grandes recursos naturales.
01 Jun 2011
TL;DR: The authors describe el impacto de la actual crisis economica en el mercado de trabajo, centrandose en el desempleo de trabbajadores inmigrantes and autoctonos.
Abstract: El articulo describe el impacto de la actual crisis economica en el mercado de trabajo, centrandose en el desempleo de trabajadores inmigrantes y autoctonos. Se analiza la distribucion del desempleo entre trabajadores nativos e inmigrantes mediante variables sociodemograficas. Se sostiene que la crisis ha producido una nueva segmentacion del mercado de trabajo.
01 Jan 2008
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the state of affairs concerning the population migrations between Argentina and Spain in the last quarter of the 20th century and identify various migratory waves that occurred during the end of the seventies, in the eighties, and at the beginning of the 21st century.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the state of affairs concerning the population migrations between Argentina and Spain in the last quarter of the 20th century. We intend to shed light on a certain aspect of Latin American immigration that has not been very visible in the Spanish context. Despite the fact that the Argentineans are the third most numerous national group in the Spanish territory, neither public opinion nor researchers have so far paid much attention to them. We indicate the social evolution of the country of origin during the last decades with the purpose of identifying the principal «emigration movements». We identify various migratory waves that occurred during the end of the seventies, in the eighties, and at the beginning of the 21st century. The population composition according to gender and age groups and the patterns of geographical settlements show certain peculiarities of Argentinean immigration compared to the rest of noncommunitarian immigrants. Their levels of competence and academic achievement seems, at first hand, also to point to a peculiar situation. However, a rather high index of irregularity (of so-called immigrants «with no papers») and the modalities of occupational insertion of the newcomers indicate that we are dealing with economic migrants. This involves difficulties and problems comparable to those of immigrants coming from other countries. The difficulties in perceiving Argentinean nationals as «another group amongst other immigrants» lies in the perceptions of the autochthonous public opinion and in the lack of interest or attention granted by the responsible institutions of both countries in question.
TL;DR: Professor Titmuss, an eminent English social theorist, believes that man is inherently altruistic and that the duty of government is to create that social and economic climate which best channels man's drive to work together for the common good.
Abstract: Professor Titmuss, an eminent English social theorist, believes that man is inherently altruistic and that the duty of government is to create that social and economic climate which best channels man's drive to work together for the common good. In support of this belief, he has written a book about the procurement, distribution, and transfusion of human blood, a medical topic which he employs as an illustrative social and economic microcosm. The conclusion he reaches is foregone: "The voluntary socialized system in Britain is economically, professionally, administratively and qualitatively more efficient than the mixed, commercialized, and individualistic American system" (Titmuss, R.M: "Why Give to Strangers?" Lancet 1 :123-125, 1971). As the book was written with a bias, so will it be read with bias. My own bias is that of an American and a blood-banker. I am only too conscious of many deficiencies in the American complex of arrangements—it isn't
TL;DR: Porter, Michael E. E. Vergara, et al. as mentioned in this paper, define la ventaja competitiva as "the razon del progreso economico de las colectividades sociales".
Abstract: En este libro de mas de 1000 cuartillas, el autor de obras como Estrategia competitiva (1980) y la Ventaja competitiva (1985), intenta responder una cuestion fundamental para la explicacion de las economias contemporaneas: ?Cual es la razon del progreso economico de las colectividades sociales? Porter, Michael E. La ventaja competitiva de las naciones. Ed. Vergara, Buenos Aires, 1991
01 Jan 2010
TL;DR: In el presente trabajo, a traves de sus two componentes principales, exiliados/as e inmigrantes, es evidente que estos two colectivos estuvieron relacionados, circunstancia que dio lugar a una serie of encuentros y encuentsos as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: El objeto de estudio del presente trabajo es la comunidad espanola de Buenos Aires entre 1936 y 1956, a traves de sus dos componentes principales, exiliados/as e inmigrantes. A pesar de que estos dos colectivos han sido considerados por la historiografia tradicional como compartimentos estancos es evidente que estuvieron relacionados, circunstancia que dio lugar a una serie de encuentros y encuentros. Para conocer la colectividad espanola mas grande fuera de Espana en este periodo concreto de la historia hemos analizado las caracteristicas del exilio de la Guerra Civil espanola en Argentina, asi como de la emigracion de posguerra, que cerro los flujos migratorios de espanoles/as a dicho pais en el siglo XX. Hemos abordado la integracion del exilio republicano y de la nueva emigracion en la sociedad de acogida, en especial en el seno de la comunidad conformada por la antigua emigracion. En este sentido, ha sido fundamental delimitar las categorias conformadas por la emigracion politica, el exilio y la emigracion economica. Para observar los contactos entre emigrantes y exiliados/as hemos analizado las instituciones de la colectividad, con especial enfasis en determinados centros antifranquistas, sobre todo Centro Republicano Espanol de Buenos Aires, que vivio durante este periodo una etapa de esplendor. Y hemos estudiado la construccion y reelaboracion de identidades colectivas, asi como el desarrollo de la memoria del exilio y la emigracion. Todo ello ha sido realizado poniendo de relieve los contactos politicos que se establecieron entre los gobiernos argentinos, en especial el de Juan D. Peron, y la dictadura franquista, y sus efectos en la comunidad espanola.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of electronic monitoring on recidivism were investigated using quasi-experimental data from France, and the results showed that fully converting prison sentences into electronic monitoring has long-lasting beneficial effects on re-conviction, with estimated reductions in probability of reconviction of 6-7 percentage points after five years.
Abstract: Many countries have recently adopted electronic monitoring (EM) as an alternative sentence in order to reduce incarceration while maintaining public safety. However, the empirical evidence on the effects of EM on recidivism (relative to prison) is very scarce worldwide. In this paper, we adress this debated question using quasi-experimental data from France. Our empirical strategy exploits the incremental roll-in of electronic monitoring in France, which started as a local experiment in four courts in 2000-2001, and was later adopted by more and more courts (2002-2003). Our IV estimates show that fully converting prison sentences into electronic monitoring has long-lasting beneficial effects on recidivism, with estimated reductions in probability of reconviction of 6-7 percentage points (9-11%) after five years. There is also evidence that, in case of recidivism, EM leads to less serious offenses compared to prison. These beneficial effects are particularly strong on electronically monitored offenders who received control visits at home from correctional officers, were obliged to work while under EM, and had already experienced prison before. This pattern suggests that both rehabilitation and deterrence are important factors in reducing long-term recidivism, and that electronic monitoring can be a very cost-effective alternative to short prison sentences. However, the massive development of EM in France in recent years, with shorter and less intensive supervision, may reduce its effectiveness.
TL;DR: There is a correlation between distance to Buenos Aires and proportion of Native American ancestry, where the highest proportion corresponds to the Northernmost populations, which is also the furthest from the Argentinian capital.
Abstract: We analyzed 391 samples from 12 Argentinian populations from the Center-West, East and North-West regions with the Illumina Human Exome Beadchip v1.0 (HumanExome-12v1-A). We did Principal Components analysis to infer patterns of populational divergence and migrations. We identified proportions and patterns of European, African and Native American ancestry and found a correlation between distance to Buenos Aires and proportion of Native American ancestry, where the highest proportion corresponds to the Northernmost populations, which is also the furthest from the Argentinian capital. Most of the European sources are from a South European origin, matching historical records, and we see two different Native American components, one that spreads all over Argentina and another specifically Andean. The highest percentages of African ancestry were in the Center West of Argentina, where the old trade routes took the slaves from Buenos Aires to Chile and Peru. Subcontinentaly, sources of this African component are represented by both West Africa and groups influenced by the Bantu expansion, the second slightly higher than the first, unlike North America and the Caribbean, where the main source is West Africa. This is reasonable, considering that a large proportion of the ships arriving at the Southern Hemisphere came from Mozambique, Loango and Angola.