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Filiberto Bilotti

Bio: Filiberto Bilotti is an academic researcher from Roma Tre University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Metamaterial & Antenna (radio). The author has an hindex of 37, co-authored 404 publications receiving 5648 citations. Previous affiliations of Filiberto Bilotti include Sapienza University of Rome & City University of New York.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the design of miniaturized resonant inclusions to be employed in the practical realization of metamaterial samples with anomalous values of the real part of the permeability is presented.
Abstract: We present the design of miniaturized resonant inclusions to be employed in the practical realization of metamaterial samples with anomalous values of the real part of the permeability. Such inclusions, in fact, can be employed in the design of both mu-negative (MNG) materials and artificial magnetodielectrics (with negative and high-positive values of the real part of the permeability, respectively). The inclusions here considered are the multiple split-ring resonators (MSRRs), that represent a straightforward extension of the commonly used split-ring resonators (SRRs), and the spiral resonators (SRs), that enable a greater miniaturization rate. Some physical insights on the resonance mechanism and on the inherent saturation of the resonant frequency when increasing the number of the rings of the MSRRs and the number of the turns of the SRs are given in the paper. New and accurate analytical design formulas, based on a quasi-static model, for both MSRRs and SRs are derived and tested through a proper comparison with the existing formulas and full-wave numerical results. Both MSRRs and SRs are shown to be useful to reduce the electrical dimensions of the resonant inclusions when synthesizing artificial metamaterials.

352 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Dec 2007
TL;DR: In this article, the authors derived quasi-static equivalent circuit models for the analysis and design of different types of artificial magnetic resonators, i.e., the multiple split-ring resonator, spiral resonator and labyrinth resonator.
Abstract: In this paper, we derive quasi-static equivalent-circuit models for the analysis and design of different types of artificial magnetic resonators-i.e., the multiple split-ring resonator, spiral resonator, and labyrinth resonator-which represent popular inclusions to synthesize artificial materials and metamaterials with anomalous values of the permeability in the microwave and millimeter-wave frequency ranges. The proposed models, derived in terms of equivalent circuits, represent an extension of the models presented in a recent publication. In particular, the extended models take into account the presence of a dielectric substrate hosting the metallic inclusions and the losses due to the finite conductivity of the conductors and the finite resistivity of the dielectrics. Exploiting these circuit models, it is possible to accurately predict not only the resonant frequency of the individual inclusions, but also their quality factor and the relative permeability of metamaterial samples made by given arrangements of such inclusions. Finally, the three models have been tested against full-wave simulations and measurements, showing a good accuracy. This result opens the door to a quick and accurate design of the artificial magnetic inclusions to fabricate real-life metamaterial samples with anomalous values of the permeability.

266 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the matching and radiation properties of subwavelength resonant patch antennas filled with double-negative, double-positive, and/or single-negative metamaterial blocks are analyzed.
Abstract: We analyze the matching and radiation properties of subwavelength resonant patch antennas filled with double-negative, double-positive, and/or single-negative metamaterial blocks. Analyzing the theoretical limits inherently present when loading such common radiators with metamaterials, we show how these configurations may exhibit in principle an arbitrarily low resonant frequency for a fixed dimension, but they may not necessarily radiate efficiently when their size is electrically small. However, interesting possibilities are suggested to overcome these limitations by employing circular or more complex patch geometries in order to select specific modes that, when appropriate loading ratios between the filling materials are chosen, also ensure radiation performance comparable qualitatively with a regular patch radiator of standard dimensions. Realistic numerical simulations, considering material dispersion, losses and the presence of the antenna feed are presented, showing how a practical realization is foreseeable. This may open novel venues in the design of small-scaled radiators with enhanced performance, which is of interest for many applications

255 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a sub-wavelength radiating antenna with magnetic inclusions that can operate even when the fabricated MNG sample is not isotropic, due to the specific polarization of the magnetic field in the MNG region.
Abstract: Recent theoretical studies have shown that circular patch antennas loaded by an inhomogeneous substrate partially filled with a mu-negative (MNG) metamaterial may in principle support a resonant radiating mode, even if the total size of the radiator is significantly smaller than the wavelength of operation. In those theoretical analyses, MNG metamaterials have been assumed as continuous, isotropic and readily available materials, characterized by a proper dispersion in frequency and by inherent ohmic losses. The fabrication of such compact antennas, however, would require the major effort of designing proper subwavelength inclusions that realize the MNG behavior of the substrate, and consequently a careful design of their geometry, location and orientation. The fabrication of a fully isotropic MNG sample to reside underneath the sub-wavelength patch, moreover, may be challenging with the current technological limitations. In this paper, we first show that the proposed sub-wavelength radiator may operate even when the fabricated MNG sample is not isotropic, due to the specific polarization of the magnetic field in the MNG region. Then, we propose a complete design of the magnetic inclusions, presenting full-wave numerical simulations of the structure, which effectively supports the expected resonant mode, despite the small size of the antenna. The comparisons among analytical results of the patch loaded by: (a) the ideal MNG sample applying a simple cavity model; (b) full-wave numerical simulations of the same antenna considering the presence of the feed; and (c) full-wave numerical simulations of the antenna loaded by the proposed magnetic inclusions, show how our design effectively simulate the presence of an MNG sample, allowing the realistic design of a sub-wavelength metamaterial patch antenna with satisfactory matching and radiating features. This may open up new venues in the realization of efficient metamaterial radiating components for practical purposes.

235 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the possibility of using the mantle cloaking approach to reduce mutual blockage effects between two electrically close antennas and showed that by covering the two antennas with properly patterned metasurfaces printed on realistic substrates, it is possible to make each antenna invisible to the other and preserve their individual operation as if they were isolated.
Abstract: In this letter, we investigate the possibility of using the mantle cloaking approach to reduce mutual blockage effects between two electrically close antennas. In particular, we consider the case of two dipoles resonating at different, close frequencies and separated by an electrically short distance ( λ0 /10 at 3 GHz). We show that by covering the two antennas with properly patterned metasurfaces printed on realistic substrates, it is possible to make each antenna invisible to the other and preserve their individual operation as if they were isolated. This new cloaking application is confirmed by realistic full-wave numerical simulations.

144 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Metamaterials are typically engineered by arranging a set of small scatterers or apertures in a regular array throughout a region of space, thus obtaining some desirable bulk electromagnetic behavior as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Metamaterials are typically engineered by arranging a set of small scatterers or apertures in a regular array throughout a region of space, thus obtaining some desirable bulk electromagnetic behavior. The desired property is often one that is not normally found naturally (negative refractive index, near-zero index, etc.). Over the past ten years, metamaterials have moved from being simply a theoretical concept to a field with developed and marketed applications. Three-dimensional metamaterials can be extended by arranging electrically small scatterers or holes into a two-dimensional pattern at a surface or interface. This surface version of a metamaterial has been given the name metasurface (the term metafilm has also been employed for certain structures). For many applications, metasurfaces can be used in place of metamaterials. Metasurfaces have the advantage of taking up less physical space than do full three-dimensional metamaterial structures; consequently, metasurfaces offer the possibility of less-lossy structures. In this overview paper, we discuss the theoretical basis by which metasurfaces should be characterized, and discuss their various applications. We will see how metasurfaces are distinguished from conventional frequency-selective surfaces. Metasurfaces have a wide range of potential applications in electromagnetics (ranging from low microwave to optical frequencies), including: (1) controllable “smart” surfaces, (2) miniaturized cavity resonators, (3) novel wave-guiding structures, (4) angular-independent surfaces, (5) absorbers, (6) biomedical devices, (7) terahertz switches, and (8) fluid-tunable frequency-agile materials, to name only a few. In this review, we will see that the development in recent years of such materials and/or surfaces is bringing us closer to realizing the exciting speculations made over one hundred years ago by the work of Lamb, Schuster, and Pocklington, and later by Mandel'shtam and Veselago.

1,819 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established and Insight is given into what the authors can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed.
Abstract: The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch–the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)–has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed.

1,419 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A general framework to evaluate the coverage and rate performance in mmWave cellular networks is proposed, and the results show that dense mmWave networks can achieve comparable coverage and much higher data rates than conventional UHF cellular systems, despite the presence of blockages.
Abstract: Millimeter wave (mmWave) holds promise as a carrier frequency for fifth generation cellular networks. Because mmWave signals are sensitive to blockage, prior models for cellular networks operated in the ultra high frequency (UHF) band do not apply to analyze mmWave cellular networks directly. Leveraging concepts from stochastic geometry, this paper proposes a general framework to evaluate the coverage and rate performance in mmWave cellular networks. Using a distance-dependent line-of-site (LOS) probability function, the locations of the LOS and non-LOS base stations are modeled as two independent non-homogeneous Poisson point processes, to which different path loss laws are applied. Based on the proposed framework, expressions for the signal-to-noise-and-interference ratio (SINR) and rate coverage probability are derived. The mmWave coverage and rate performance are examined as a function of the antenna geometry and base station density. The case of dense networks is further analyzed by applying a simplified system model, in which the LOS region of a user is approximated as a fixed LOS ball. The results show that dense mmWave networks can achieve comparable coverage and much higher data rates than conventional UHF cellular systems, despite the presence of blockages. The results suggest that the cell size to achieve the optimal SINR scales with the average size of the area that is LOS to a user.

1,342 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the basic physics and applications of planar metamaterials, often called metasurfaces, which are composed of optically thin and densely packed planar arrays of resonant or nearly resonant subwavelength elements, are reviewed.

1,047 citations