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Fletcher A. Blanchard

Bio: Fletcher A. Blanchard is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Affirmative action & Women of color. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 2 publications receiving 134 citations.

Papers
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Book
03 Apr 1989
TL;DR: In this paper, a case study of the New York City Firefighters showed that women in federal government employment were disproportionately discriminated against due to their gender and sexual orientation, and the importance of patterns in the perception of discrimination.
Abstract: I Affirmative Action Policies and Programs.- 1 Introduction: Affirmative Action and the Question of Standards.- 2 What is Affirmative Action?.- 3 Affirmative Action and Presidential Executive Orders.- 4 Affirmative Action and the Courts.- 5 Employment Screening, Qualifications, and Gender Discrimination: A Case Study of the New York City Firefighters.- 6 Women in Federal Government Employment.- II Reactions to Affirmative Action.- 7 Resistance to Affirmative Action: The Implications of Aversive Racism.- 8 Affirmative Action and Self-Evaluation.- 9 Who Likes Affirmative Action: Attitudinal Processes Among Men and Women.- 10 Administrators' Perceptions of Affirmative Action in Higher Education.- 11 Reactions to Affirmative Action: A Case Study.- III Why Bother?.- 12 Labor Market Discrimination in the United States.- 13 Affirmative Action and Aggregate Data: The Importance of Patterns in the Perception of Discrimination.- 14 Affirmative Action and the Challenge of the Color-blind Perspective.- 15 The Justice of Affirmative Action.- 16 Effective Affirmative Action Programs.

112 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1989
TL;DR: Racial and sexual inequities characterize the contemporary American economy as discussed by the authors and men and women of color and White women are more often unemployed and underemployed relative to White males.
Abstract: Racial and sexual inequities characterize the contemporary American economy. Relative to White males, men and women of color and White women are more often unemployed and underemployed. When they do find employment, people of color and women are often relegated to low status, ill-paying occupations. At all occupational levels members of these groups are paid less than comparable White men.

22 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: McConahay et al. as mentioned in this paper compared factor structures of old-fashioned and modern sexism and racism and found that modern sexism is characterized by denial of continued discrimination, antagonism toward women's de-mands, and lack of support for policies designed to help women (for example, in education and work).
Abstract: Prejudice and discrimination against women has become increasingly subtle and covert (N. V. Be-nokraitis & J. R. Feagin, 1986). Unlike research on racism, little research about prejudice and dis-crimination against women has explicitly examined beliefs underlying this more modern form ofsexism. Support was found for a distinction between old-fashioned and modern beliefs about womensimilar to results that have been presented for racism (J. B. McConahay, 1986; D. O. Sears, 1988).The former is characterized by endorsement of traditional gender roles, differential treatment ofwomen and men, and stereotypes about lesser female competence. Like modern racism, modernsexism is characterized by the denial of continued discrimination, antagonism toward women's de-mands, and lack of support for policies designed to help women (for example, in education andwork). Research that compares factor structures of old-fashioned and modern sexism and racismand that validates our modern sexism scale is presented.

1,289 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The extended contact hypothesis as mentioned in this paper proposes that knowledge that an in-group member has a close relationship with an outgroup member can lead to more positive intergroup attitudes, and four methodologically diverse studies to demonstrate the phenomenon.
Abstract: The extended contact hypothesis proposes that knowledge that an in-group member has a close relationship with an out-group member can lead to more positive intergroup attitudes. Proposed mechanisms are the in-group or out-group member serving as positive exemplars and the inclusion of the out-group member's group membership in the self. In Studies I and 2, respondents knowing an in-group member with an out-group friend had less negative attitudes toward that out-group, even controlling for disposition.il variables and direct out-group friendships. Study 3, with constructed intergroup-conflict situations (on the robbers cave model). found reduced negative out-group attitudes after participants learned of cross-group friendships. Study 4, a minimal group experiment, showed less negative out-group attitudes for participants observing an apparent in-group-out-group friendship. The intergroup contact hypothesis (Allport, 1954; Williams, 1947) proposes that under a given set of circumstances contact between members of different groups reduces existing negative intergroup attitudes. Some recent research (reviewed below) suggests that the effect may be most clearly associated with the specific contact of a friendship relationship. The extended contact hypothesis, which we introduce here, proposes that knowledge that an in-group member has a close relationship with an out-group member can lead to more positive intergroup attitudes. This article presents the rationale for the extended contact effect, including three mechanisms by which it may operate, and four methodologically diverse studies to demonstrate the phenomenon.

1,251 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that firms that can lower their costs and enhance their differentiation through the effective management of their human resources have a competitive advantage, using data from the U.S. Department of Defense.
Abstract: This study's premise is that firms that can lower their costs and enhance their differentiation through the effective management of their human resources have a competitive advantage. Using data fr...

420 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article found that hearing someone condemn racism led whites to express significantly stronger antiracist opinions than occured following exposure to a no-influence control condition, while hearing someone condone racism led Ss to adopt significantly less strong ant-racist positions that when no other opinions were introduced.
Abstract: Campus racial harassment provided the context for an experiment, replicated over 3 different campus samples, regarding the effects of social influence on Whites' reactions to racism. Hearing someone condemn racism led Ss to express significantly stronger antiracist opinions than occured following exposure to a no-influence control condition. Furthermore, hearing someone condone racism led Ss to adopt significantly less strong antiracist positions that when no other opinions were introduced. The robust social influence effects were obtained regardless of whether the source was White or Black or whether Ss responded publicly or privately. A social context approach to interracial settings is discussed

287 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors summarize and meta-analytically estimate relationships of AAP attitudes with structural features of such programs, perceiver demographic and psychological characteristics, and interactions of structural features with perceiver characteristics.
Abstract: Affirmative action programs (AAPs) are controversial employment policies in the United States and elsewhere. A large body of evidence about attitudinal reactions to AAPs in employment has accumulated over 35 years: at least 126 independent samples involving 29,000 people. However, findings are not firmly established or integrated. In the current article, the authors summarize and meta-analytically estimate relationships of AAP attitudes with (a) structural features of such programs, (b) perceiver demographic and psychological characteristics, (c) interactions of structural features with perceiver characteristics, and (d) presentation of AAP details to perceivers, including justification of the AAP. Results are generally consistent with predictions derived from self-interest considerations, organizational justice theory, and racism theories. They also suggest practical ways in which AAPs might be designed and communicated to employees to reduce attitudinal resistance.

277 citations