Other affiliations: University of California, Berkeley, Case Western Reserve University, Glenn Research Center ...read more
Bio: Fletcher Miller is an academic researcher from San Diego State University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Flame spread & Combustion. The author has an hindex of 16, co-authored 82 publications receiving 831 citations. Previous affiliations of Fletcher Miller include University of California, Berkeley & Case Western Reserve University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, two sets of experiments are described, one involving flame spread in a Narrow Channel Apparatus (NCA) in normal gravity, and the other taking place in actual microgravity.
Abstract: Most previous research on flame spread over solid surfaces has involved flames in open areas. In this study, the flame spreads in a narrow gap, as occurs in fires behind walls or inside electronic equipment. This geometry leads to interesting flame behaviors not typically seen in open flame spread, and also reproduces some of the conditions experienced by microgravity flames. Two sets of experiments are described, one involving flame spread in a Narrow Channel Apparatus (NCA) in normal gravity, and the others taking place in actual microgravity. Three primary variables are considered: flow velocity, oxygen concentration, and gap size (or effect of heat loss). When the oxidizer flow is reduced at either gravity level, the initially uniform flame front becomes corrugated and breaks into separate flamelets. This breakup behavior allows the flame to keep propagating below standard extinction limits by increasing the oxidizer transport to the flame, but has not been observed in other microgravity experiments due to the narrow samples employed. Breakup cannot be studied in typical (i.e., “open”) normal gravity test facilities due to buoyancy-induced opposed flow velocities that are larger than the forced velocities in the flamelet regime. Flammability maps are constructed that delineate the uniform regime, the flamelet regime, and extinction limits for thin cellulose samples. Good agreement is found between flame and flamelet spread rate and flamelet size between the two facilities. Supporting calculations using FLUENT suggest that for small gaps buoyancy is suppressed and exerts a negligible influence on the flow pattern for inlet velocities ⩾5 cm/s. The experiments show that in normal gravity the flamelets are a fire hazard since they can persist in small gaps where they are hard to detect. The results also indicate that the NCA quantitatively captures the essential features of the microgravity tests for thin fuels in opposed flow.
TL;DR: In this article, a thermal model of a solar central receiver that volumetrically absorbs concentrated sunlight directly in a flowing gas stream seeded with submicron carbon particles is presented.
Abstract: This paper presents a thermal model of a solar central receiver that volumetrically absorbs concentrated sunlight directly in a flowing gas stream seeded with submicron carbon particles. A modified six-flux radiation model is developed and used with the energy equation to calculate the three-dimensional radiant flux and temperature distributions in a cavity-type particle receiver. Results indicate that the receiver is capable of withstanding very high incident fluxes and delivering high temperatures. The receiver efficiency as a function of mass flow rate as well as the effect of particle oxidation on the temperature profiles are presented.
01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: In this article, a 5.18-s drop tower with a thin cellulose fuel was used to investigate flame spread in both concurrent and opposed flow in a spacecraft, with a focus on pressure/oxygen combinations that result in earth-equivalent oxygen partial pressures (normoxic conditions).
Abstract: Flame spread experiments in both concurrent and opposed flow have been carried out in a 5.18-s drop tower with a thin cellulose fuel. Flame spread rate and flame length have been measured over a range of 0–30 cm/s forced flow (in both directions), 3.6–14.7 psia, and oxygen mole fractions 0.24–0.85 in nitrogen. Results are presented for each of the three variables independently to elucidate their individual effects, with special emphasis on pressure/oxygen combinations that result in earth-equivalent oxygen partial pressures (normoxic conditions). Correlations using all three variables combined into a single parameter to predict flame spread rate are presented. The correlations are used to demonstrate that opposed flow flames in typical spacecraft ventilation flows (5–20 cm/s) spread faster than concurrent flow flames under otherwise similar conditions (pressure, oxygen concentration) in nearly all spacecraft atmospheres. This indicates that in the event of an actual fire aboard a spacecraft, the fire is likely to grow most quickly in the opposed mode as the upstream flame spreads faster and the downstream flame is inhibited by the vitiated atmosphere produced by the upstream flame. Additionally, an interesting phenomenon was observed at intermediate values of concurrent forced flow velocity where flow/flame interactions produced a recirculation downstream of the flame, which allowed an opposed flow leading edge to form there.
TL;DR: In this paper, the first three-dimensional model for a rectangular solar receiver is presented, which includes a simultaneous solution of the radiative transfer equation and the energy equation, together with calculations for particle absorption, scattering, and oxidation (for carbon particles in air).
Abstract: High-temperature solar receivers that use a gas-particle suspension to absorb concentrated sunlight are currently being studied for heating gases, both to drive a turbine for electricity, and to carry out suitable chemical reactions. Although the geometry of such a receiver is far from finalized, as an example one may consider a large chamber filled with the particle suspension and open on one side (with or without a window) to admit the radiation. In order to design and assess the viability of such a receiver, it is necessary to know how the light is absorbed in the mixture and what the resulting temperature profiles are. In this paper the first three-dimensional model for a rectangular receiver is presented. It includes a simultaneous solution of the radiative transfer equation and the energy equation, together with calculations for particle absorption, scattering, and oxidation (for carbon particles in air). For a theoretical 30 MWth receiver, the results show high receiver and receiver + Carnot cycle efficiencies, fairly low dependence on particle size, and large temperature gradients in the receiver when the particles do not oxidize.
••01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of gravity and air flow speed on the flame-spread behavior across a deep, rectangular tray filled with 1-butanol were investigated using simultaneous rainbow schlieren deflectometry, particle image velocimetry (PIV), infrated (IR) thermography, standard flame imaging, and thermocouples.
Abstract: Experiments using simultaneous rainbow schlieren deflectometry, particle image velocimetry (PIV), infrated (IR) thermography, standard flame imaging, and thermocouples are conducted to reveal detailed physics of low-speed, forced-opposed-flow flame spread over liquid pools. Our effort concentrates on the effects of gravity and air flow speed on the flame-spread behavior across a deep, rectangular tray filled with 1-butanol. The microgravity ( μg ) part of the experiment is the first combustion experiment conducted aboard a sounding rocket. Several novel observations are made. Even with forced-air velocities of the same order of magnitude as that induced naturally by buoyancy in normal gravity, the μg flame behavior is completely different. Whereas the normal gravity (1 g ) flames we studied are soot-producing, and pulsate and spread rapidly, the μg flames are free of soot and spread steadily and very slowly. The rainbow schlieren measurements show that heat penetrates far deeper into the pool in μg , suggesting that the major effect of liquid-phase buoyancy is its stratification of the temperature field in 1 g : its absence in μg may lead to a very different liquid-phase surface temperature, flow field, and flame-spread character. The IR thermography reveals hetetofore unobserved liquid surface temperature and side-flow phenomena in both 1 g and μg . PIV has been used for the first time to obtain quantitative, full-field, liquid-phase velocity fields ahead of the flame, revealing significantly more surface flow in μg than in 1 g . A state-of-the-art model's predictions are qualitatively confirmed in regard to gravitational effects on flame shape, flame extinction in μg when there is no opposed air flow, and fuel consumption rate. Disagreement is found in the flame spread character in μg , unless hot gas expansion is artificially set to zero.
01 Feb 2009
TL;DR: Nanofluids have seen enormous growth in popularity since they were proposed by Choi in 1995 as mentioned in this paper, and there were nearly 700 research articles where the term nanofluid was used in the title, showing rapid growth from 2006 (175) and 2001 (10).
Abstract: Nanofluids—a simple product of the emerging world of nanotechnology—are suspensions of nanoparticles (nominally 1–100 nm in size) in conventional base fluids such as water, oils, or glycols. Nanofluids have seen enormous growth in popularity since they were proposed by Choi in 1995. In the year 2011 alone, there were nearly 700 research articles where the term nanofluid was used in the title, showing rapid growth from 2006 (175) and 2001 (10). The first decade of nanofluid research was primarily focused on measuring and modeling fundamental thermophysical properties of nanofluids (thermal conductivity, density, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient). Recent research, however, explores the performance of nanofluids in a wide variety of other applications. Analyzing the available body of research to date, this article presents recent trends and future possibilities for nanofluids research and suggests which applications will see the most significant improvement from employing nanofluids.
10 Jun 2005
TL;DR: This work focuses on the design of a new approximation algorithm that reduces the cost of functional evaluations and yet increases the attainable order higher, and the classical ERK methods.
Abstract: During the last decade, a big progress has been achieved in the analysis and numerical treatment of Initial Value Problems (IVPs) in Differential Algebraic Equations (DAEs) and Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). In spite of the rich variety of results available in the literature, there are still many specific problems that require special attention. Two of such, which are considered in this work, are the optimization of order of accuracy and reduction of cost of functional evaluations of Explicit Runge - Kutta (ERK) methods. Traditionally, the maximum attainable order p of an s-stage ERK method for advancing the solution of an IVP is such that p(s) 4 In 1999, Goeken presented an s-stage ERK Method of order p(s)=s +1,s>2. However, this work focuses on the design of a new approximation algorithm that reduces the cost of functional evaluations and yet increases the attainable order higher U n and Jonhson ; and the classical ERK methods. The order p of the new scheme called Multiderivative Explicit Runge-Kutta (MERK) Methods is such that p(s) 2. The stability, convergence and implementation for the optimization of IVPs in DAEs and ODEs systems are also considered.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the feasibility of using a nonconcentrating direct absorption solar collector (DAC) and compared its performance with that of a typical flat-plate collector.
Abstract: Due to its renewable and nonpolluting nature, solar energy is often used in applications such as electricity generation, thermal heating, and chemical processing. The most cost-effective solar heaters are of the "flat-plate" type, but these suffer from relatively low efficiency and outlet temperatures. The present study theoretically investigates the feasibility of using a nonconcentrating direct absorption solar collector (DAC) and compares its performance with that of a typical flat-plate collector. Here a nanofluid-a mixture of water and aluminum nanoparticles—is used as the absorbing medium. A two-dimensional heat transfer analysis was developed in which direct sunlight was incident on a thin flowing film of nanofluid. The effects of absorption and scattering within the nanofluid were accounted for. In order to evaluate the temperature profile and intensity distribution within the nanofluid, the energy balance equation and heat transport equation were solved numerically. It was observed that the presence of nanoparticles increases the absorption of incident radiation by more than nine times over that of pure water. According to the results obtained from this study, under similar operating conditions, the efficiency of a DA C using nanofluid as the working fluid is found to be up to 10% higher (on an absolute basis) than that of a flat-plate collector. Generally a DAC using nanofluids as the working fluid performs better than a flat-plate collector, however, much better designed flat-plate collectors might be able to match or outperform a nanofluids based DAC under certain conditions.
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the central receiver designs for concentrating solar power applications with high-temperature power cycles is presented, which includes low-cost and durable materials that can withstand high concentration ratios (~1000 suns), heat-transfer fluids, and low radiative and convective heat losses leading to a thermal efficiency >90%.
Abstract: This paper reviews central receiver designs for concentrating solar power applications with high-temperature power cycles Desired features include low-cost and durable materials that can withstand high concentration ratios (~1000 suns), heat-transfer fluids that can withstand temperatures >650 °C, high solar absorptance, and low radiative and convective heat losses leading to a thermal efficiency >90% Different receiver designs are categorized and evaluated in this paper: (1) gas receivers, (2) liquid receivers, and (3) solid particle receivers For each design, the following information is provided: general principle and review of previous modeling and testing activities, expected outlet temperature and thermal efficiency, benefits, perceived challenges, and research needs Emerging receiver designs that can enable higher thermal-to-electric efficiencies (50% or higher) using advanced power cycles such as supercritical CO 2 closed-loop Brayton cycles include direct heating of CO 2 in tubular receiver designs (external or cavity) that can withstand high internal fluid pressures (~20 MPa) and temperatures (~700 °C) Indirect heating of other fluids and materials that can be stored at high temperatures such as advanced molten salts, liquid metals, or solid particles are also being pursued, but challenges include stability, heat loss, and the need for high-temperature heat exchangers