Author

# Francis A Kulacki

Other affiliations: Ohio State University, Columbia University, University of Delaware ...read more

Bio: Francis A Kulacki is an academic researcher from University of Minnesota. The author has contributed to research in topics: Heat transfer & Natural convection. The author has an hindex of 38, co-authored 213 publications receiving 4575 citations. Previous affiliations of Francis A Kulacki include Ohio State University & Columbia University.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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271 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors measured energy transport at Rayleigh numbers up to 675 times the critical (linear stability theory) value in a layer of dilute electrolyte bounded horizontally by two rigid planes of constant and equal temperature; Joule heating by an alternating current passing horizontally through the layer provides the volumetric energy source.

Abstract: Energy transport at Rayleigh numbers up to 675 times the critical (linear stability theory) value is measured in a layer of dilute electrolyte bounded horizontally by two rigid planes of constant and equal temperature; Joule heating by an alternating current passing horizontally through the layer provides the volumetric energy source. Horizontally averaged temperature profiles are determined optically. Mean temperature distributions are asymmetric at elevated Rayleigh numbers, the energy transport at the upper boundary being more than twice that at the lower boundary. Three regimes of flow are identified and discrete transitions in the energy transport appear to exist when the flow is turbulent. Extrapolation of the data to the conduction value of the Nusselt number yields a critical Rayleigh number which is within + 10·7% of linear theory values. No subcritical convection is observed when finite amplitude disturbances are introduced into the fluid at a Rayleigh number between the critical values predicted by the linear stability theory and energy theory respectively.

164 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the papers given at a conference on free convection in porous materials, including heat transfer, nonlinear temperature profiles and magnetic fields, boundary conditions, concentrated heat sources in stratified porous media, free convective flow in a cavity, heat flux, laminar mixed convection flow, and the onset of convection.

Abstract: This book presents the papers given at a conference on free convection in porous materials. Topics considered at the conference included heat transfer, nonlinear temperature profiles and magnetic fields, boundary conditions, concentrated heat sources in stratified porous media, free convective flow in a cavity, heat flux, laminar mixed convection flow, and the onset of convection in a porous medium with internal heat generation and downward flow.

160 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy model is used as the momentum equation and the effect of porosity variation is taken into consideration.

Abstract: Natural convection in concentric, vertical annuli filled with saturated porous media is reviewed in this paper. Relevant works related to different thermal boundary conditions are discussed first, the attention being focused on analytical and numerical solutions for the Darcy flow model. Experimental investigations conducted by using various combinations of solid particles and fluids are discussed next. Finally, the results of a numerical investigation for a vertical annulus filled with spherical beads are presented. The Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy model is used as the momentum equation and the effect of porosity variation is taken into consideration. The predicted Nusselt numbers are compared with experimental results.

141 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the history of thermal energy storage with solid-liquid phase change has been carried out and three aspects have been the focus of this review: materials, heat transfer and applications.

Abstract: Thermal energy storage in general, and phase change materials (PCMs) in particular, have been a main topic in research for the last 20 years, but although the information is quantitatively enormous, it is also spread widely in the literature, and difficult to find. In this work, a review has been carried out of the history of thermal energy storage with solid–liquid phase change. Three aspects have been the focus of this review: materials, heat transfer and applications. The paper contains listed over 150 materials used in research as PCMs, and about 45 commercially available PCMs. The paper lists over 230 references.

3,637 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the electrical and thermal conductivity of nanoparticulate filled epoxy resins is evaluated with respect to the influence of the type of carbon nanotubes (SWCNT, DWCNT and MWCNT).

Abstract: Nanostructured modification of polymers has opened up new perspectives for multi-functional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to realise electrically conductive polymers with improved or retaining mechanical performance. This study focuses on the evaluation of both, the electrical and thermal conductivity of nanoparticulate filled epoxy resins. We discuss the results with regard to the influence of the type of carbon nanotube (SWCNT, DWCNT and MWCNT), the relevance of surface-functionalisation (amino-functionalisation), the influence of filler content (wt% and vol%), the varying dispersibility, the aspect ratio and the specific surface area.

985 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the instability of a boundary layer for a range of physical parameters (Rayleigh number, amounts of thickening, and boundary conditions) and derived expressions that related the growth of the instability and the time needed to remove the boundary layer as a function of the amount of horizontal shortening (f), the Rayleigh number (R), and the ratio (a/d) of the thicknesses of the rigid and fluid layers.

Abstract: When crust thickens during crustal shortening, the underlying mantle lithosphere must shorten and thicken also, causing the submersion of cold, dense material into the surrounding asthenosphere. For a range of physical parameters the thickened boundary layer that forms the transition from the strong lithosphere to the convecting asthenosphere may become unstable, detach, and sink into the asthenosphere, to be replaced by hotter asthenospheric material. We have studied the instability of a thickened boundary layer for a range of physical parameters (Rayleigh number), amounts of thickening, and boundary conditions. In all cases the fluid was overlain by a rigid, conducting layer. Extensive numerical experiments were made for fluids with stress-free boundary conditions, heated either from below or from within. From a simple physical description of the observed pattern of flow we derived expressions that related the growth of the instability and the time needed to remove the thickened boundary layer as a function of the amount of horizontal shortening (f), the Rayleigh number (R), and the ratio (a/d) of the thicknesses of the rigid and fluid layers. In our opinion, observations and theory agree well (within 10% for R > 105) and show that the speed with which the thickened boundary layer is removed increases with increasing f, R, and a/d. A limited series of runs with no-slip boundary conditions suggests approximately the same functional relationships but with the process 0–30% slower than with stress-free boundaries. For Rayleigh numbers comparable to those appropriate for upper mantle convection (105–107) the removal of the boundary layer occurs rapidly, in times less than the thermal time constant of the overlying rigid plate. Using typical values for the physical parameters in the earth, the boundary layer is removed in times less than the duration of deformation in some collision zones (30–50 m.y.). Thus we suspect that often the lower lithosphere is removed during the process of crustal shortening, causing the overlying crust and uppermost mantle to warm rapidly. This process is likely to contribute to the development of regional metamorphism and to the generation of latetectonic or posttectonic granites. We suspect, in fact, that in some cases the entire mantle lithosphere may detach from the lower crust during crustal shortening, exposing the crust to asthenospheric temperatures.

934 citations

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01 Aug 1953

TL;DR: In this paper, a solution for the radius of the vapor bubble as a function of time is obtained which is valid for sufficiently large radius, since the radius at which it becomes valid is near the lower limit of experimental observation.

Abstract: The growth of a vapor bubble in a superheated liquid is controlled by three factors: the inertia of the liquid, the surface tension, and the vapor pressure. As the bubble grows, evaporation takes place at the bubble boundary, and the temperature and vapor pressure in the bubble are thereby decreased. The heat inflow requirement of evaporation, however, depends on the rate of bubble growth, so that the dynamic problem is linked with a heat diffusion problem. Since the heat diffusion problem has been solved, a quantitative formulation of the dynamic problem can be given. A solution for the radius of the vapor bubble as a function of time is obtained which is valid for sufficiently large radius. This asymptotic solution covers the range of physical interest since the radius at which it becomes valid is near the lower limit of experimental observation. It shows the strong effect of heat diffusion on the rate of bubble growth. Comparison of the predicted radius‐time behavior is made with experimental observations in superheated water, and very good agreement is found.

729 citations