Author

# Francisco Herrera

Other affiliations: University of Jaén, King Abdulaziz University, Royal Academy of Engineering ...read more

Bio: Francisco Herrera is an academic researcher from University of Granada. The author has contributed to research in topics: Fuzzy logic & Fuzzy rule. The author has an hindex of 139, co-authored 1001 publications receiving 82976 citations. Previous affiliations of Francisco Herrera include University of Jaén & King Abdulaziz University.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

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TL;DR: The basics are discussed and a survey of a complete set of nonparametric procedures developed to perform both pairwise and multiple comparisons, for multi-problem analysis are given.

Abstract: a b s t r a c t The interest in nonparametric statistical analysis has grown recently in the field of computational intelligence. In many experimental studies, the lack of the required properties for a proper application of parametric procedures - independence, normality, and homoscedasticity - yields to nonparametric ones the task of performing a rigorous comparison among algorithms. In this paper, we will discuss the basics and give a survey of a complete set of nonparametric procedures developed to perform both pairwise and multiple comparisons, for multi-problem analysis. The test problems of the CEC'2005 special session on real parameter optimization will help to illustrate the use of the tests throughout this tutorial, analyzing the results of a set of well-known evolutionary and swarm intelligence algorithms. This tutorial is concluded with a compilation of considerations and recommendations, which will guide practitioners when using these tests to contrast their experimental results.

3,832 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a taxonomy of recent contributions related to explainability of different machine learning models, including those aimed at explaining Deep Learning methods, is presented, and a second dedicated taxonomy is built and examined in detail.

2,827 citations

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TL;DR: This paper develops a computational technique for computing with words without any loss of information in the 2-tuple linguistic model and extends different classical aggregation operators to deal with this model.

Abstract: The fuzzy linguistic approach has been applied successfully to many problems. However, there is a limitation of this approach imposed by its information representation model and the computation methods used when fusion processes are performed on linguistic values. This limitation is the loss of information; this loss of information implies a lack of precision in the final results from the fusion of linguistic information. In this paper, we present tools for overcoming this limitation. The linguistic information is expressed by means of 2-tuples, which are composed of a linguistic term and a numeric value assessed in (-0.5, 0.5). This model allows a continuous representation of the linguistic information on its domain, therefore, it can represent any counting of information obtained in a aggregation process. We then develop a computational technique for computing with words without any loss of information. Finally, different classical aggregation operators are extended to deal with the 2-tuple linguistic model.

2,353 citations

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01 Jul 2012

TL;DR: A taxonomy for ensemble-based methods to address the class imbalance where each proposal can be categorized depending on the inner ensemble methodology in which it is based is proposed and a thorough empirical comparison is developed by the consideration of the most significant published approaches to show whether any of them makes a difference.

Abstract: Classifier learning with data-sets that suffer from imbalanced class distributions is a challenging problem in data mining community. This issue occurs when the number of examples that represent one class is much lower than the ones of the other classes. Its presence in many real-world applications has brought along a growth of attention from researchers. In machine learning, the ensemble of classifiers are known to increase the accuracy of single classifiers by combining several of them, but neither of these learning techniques alone solve the class imbalance problem, to deal with this issue the ensemble learning algorithms have to be designed specifically. In this paper, our aim is to review the state of the art on ensemble techniques in the framework of imbalanced data-sets, with focus on two-class problems. We propose a taxonomy for ensemble-based methods to address the class imbalance where each proposal can be categorized depending on the inner ensemble methodology in which it is based. In addition, we develop a thorough empirical comparison by the consideration of the most significant published approaches, within the families of the taxonomy proposed, to show whether any of them makes a difference. This comparison has shown the good behavior of the simplest approaches which combine random undersampling techniques with bagging or boosting ensembles. In addition, the positive synergy between sampling techniques and bagging has stood out. Furthermore, our results show empirically that ensemble-based algorithms are worthwhile since they outperform the mere use of preprocessing techniques before learning the classifier, therefore justifying the increase of complexity by means of a significant enhancement of the results.

2,228 citations

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01 Jan 2011

TL;DR: The aim of this paper is to present three new aspects of KEEL: KEEL-dataset, a data set repository which includes the data set partitions in theKEELformat and some guidelines for including new algorithms in KEEL, helping the researcher to compare the results of many approaches already included within the KEEL software.

Abstract: (Knowledge Extraction based onEvolutionary Learning) tool, an open source software that supports datamanagement and a designer of experiments. KEEL pays special attentionto the implementation of evolutionary learning and soft computing basedtechniques for Data Mining problems including regression, classiﬁcation,clustering, pattern mining and so on.The aim of this paper is to present three new aspects of KEEL: KEEL-dataset, a data set repository which includes the data set partitions in theKEELformatandshowssomeresultsofalgorithmsinthesedatasets; someguidelines for including new algorithms in KEEL, helping the researcherstomaketheirmethodseasilyaccessibletootherauthorsandtocomparetheresults of many approaches already included within the KEEL software;and a module of statistical procedures developed in order to provide to theresearcher a suitable tool to contrast the results obtained in any experimen-talstudy.Acaseofstudyisgiventoillustrateacompletecaseofapplicationwithin this experimental analysis framework.

2,057 citations

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TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.

Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

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28,685 citations

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TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.

Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).

13,246 citations

Microsoft

^{1}TL;DR: Probability distributions of linear models for regression and classification are given in this article, along with a discussion of combining models and combining models in the context of machine learning and classification.

Abstract: Probability Distributions.- Linear Models for Regression.- Linear Models for Classification.- Neural Networks.- Kernel Methods.- Sparse Kernel Machines.- Graphical Models.- Mixture Models and EM.- Approximate Inference.- Sampling Methods.- Continuous Latent Variables.- Sequential Data.- Combining Models.

10,141 citations