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Francisco J. Rosales

Bio: Francisco J. Rosales is an academic researcher from Pennsylvania State University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Retinol & Retinol binding protein. The author has an hindex of 12, co-authored 26 publications receiving 635 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Analysis of relations of APP biomarkers to iron-status biomarkers in infants and school-age children shows that a low prevalence of inflammation has little influence on the distribution of ferritin, and 2 common indicators of inflammation do not perform equally well in identifying persons who may have elevations in ferritIn due to inflammation.

140 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence is provided that, because RBP is differentially reduced in comparison to TTR during VA deficiency, the combined determination of the concentrations of serum RBP and TTR may provide a promising means of detecting VA deficiency during inflammation.
Abstract: To assess whether the molar ratio of retinol-binding protein (RBP) to transthyretin (TTR) is of utility in detecting vitamin A (VA) deficiency during inflammation, we analyzed data from a rat model of endotoxin-induced inflammation and from a previously reported randomized, placebo-controlled trial of VA supplementation in children with acute measles. In rats, both marginal VA deficiency and inflammation were independent causes of low plasma RBP (two-way ANOVA, P 40 mg/L). In children with a low RBP:TTR molar ratio (<0.30) at baseline, the RBP:TTR ratio increased significantly 2 wk later only in the VA-treated subgroup. These analyses provide evidence that, because RBP is differentially reduced in comparison to TTR during VA deficiency, the combined determination of the concentrations of serum RBP and TTR may provide a promising means of detecting VA deficiency during inflammation.

76 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Positive APPs are useful markers of type and severity of inflammation; however, except for AGP, it is unlikely that they can correct for malaria-induced hyporetinemia.

71 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Iron deficiency may cause changes in liver and plasma VA that are refractory to VA intake, and thus a benefit may be derived from combining iron and VA supplements during nutrition interventions.
Abstract: We assessed whether iron deficiency alters the concentration of vitamin A (VA) in plasma or liver and the chemical distribution between hepatic unesterified and esterified retinol. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats ( n = 10/group) were allocated to one of four diet groups: low iron (ID3, 3 mg of elemental iron/kg diet), marginal iron (ID15, 15 mg/kg), control diet food-restricted to the 103 group (FR, 35 mg/kg), and control diet ad libitum consumption (AD, 35 mg/kg). Both ID3 and FR rats grew less than AD and 1015 rats. At the end of 5.5 wk, plasma retinol concentrations of the 1D3 and FR rats were reduced >40% compared to ID15 and AD rats [Kruskal-Wallis test (K-W), P P < 0.0042). Iron deficiency may cause changes in liver and plasma VA that are refractory to VA intake, and thus a benefit may be derived from combining iron and VA supplements during nutrition interventions.

70 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Investigation of the effects of endotoxin-induced inflammation on vitamin A (VA) supplementation in a rat model of marginal VA deficiency indicates that inflammation-induced hyporetinemia does not necessarily imply a loss of VA, but rather represents a redistribution of tissue VA brought about by a reduced hepatic synthesis of RBP.
Abstract: Plasma retinol is reduced during numerous infections, and inflammation alters the hepatic synthesis of retinol-binding protein (RBP). In this study, we have investigated the effects of endotoxin-induced inflammation on vitamin A (VA) supplementation in a rat model of marginal VA deficiency. Marginally VA-deficient rats received an intraperitoneal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, n = 14) or saline (n = 10); 6 h later, six LPS + VA and six saline + VA rats received 7.1 micromol VA orally. Twenty-four hours after endotoxin administration, rats with inflammation (LPS) had lower plasma retinol, RBP, and hepatic RBP than saline rats (37, 31 and 44%, respectively, P < 0.05). Inflammation did not affect VA concentrations in liver and perirenal adipose tissue, although kidney VA was reduced relative to saline rats. However, urinary VA was not detected. Eighteen hours after VA supplementation, inflammation reduced the plasma unesterified retinol response (P < 0. 05) in LPS + VA relative to saline + VA rats, although total VA increased as a result of the presence of retinyl esters in LPS + VA rats. Hepatic esterified retinol concentration was reduced (P < 0. 01) in LPS + VA compared with saline + VA rats; however, hepatic unesterified retinol did not differ. Renal total retinol increased in VA-supplemented rats, but urinary retinol excretion, when observed, was low, independently of inflammation. These findings indicate that inflammation-induced hyporetinemia does not necessarily imply a loss of VA, but rather represents a redistribution of tissue VA brought about by a reduced hepatic synthesis of RBP. Practical implications from these collective results are to recommend the determination of both unesterified and esterified retinol to fully assess the plasma response to VA supplementation and to caution the use of VA assessment methodologies that depend on the hepatic synthesis of RBP during acute inflammation.

49 citations


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Book
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Food fortification has the dual advantage of being able to deliver nutrients to large segments of the population without requiring radical changes in food consumption patterns.
Abstract: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations PA N I S F I A T G u id e in e s o n fo o d fo r tific atio n w th m ic r o n u tr ie n ts Interest in micronutrient malnutrition has increased greatly over the last few years. One of the main reasons is the realization that micronutrient malnutrition contributes substantially to the global burden of disease. Furthermore, although micronutrient malnutrition is more frequent and severe in the developing world and among disadvantaged populations, it also represents a public health problem in some industrialized countries. Measures to correct micronutrient deficiencies aim at ensuring consumption of a balanced diet that is adequate in every nutrient. Unfortunately, this is far from being achieved everywhere since it requires universal access to adequate food and appropriate dietary habits. Food fortification has the dual advantage of being able to deliver nutrients to large segments of the population without requiring radical changes in food consumption patterns.

1,338 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Potential mechanisms are described and research gaps, which limit the understanding of the interaction between diet and postprandial and chronic low-grade inflammation, are identified.
Abstract: Low-grade inflammation is a characteristic of the obese state, and adipose tissue releases many inflammatory mediators. The source of these mediators within adipose tissue is not clear, but infiltrating macrophages seem to be especially important, although adipocytes themselves play a role. Obese people have higher circulating concentrations of many inflammatory markers than lean people do, and these are believed to play a role in causing insulin resistance and other metabolic disturbances. Blood concentrations of inflammatory markers are lowered following weight loss. In the hours following the consumption of a meal, there is an elevation in the concentrations of inflammatory mediators in the bloodstream, which is exaggerated in obese subjects and in type 2 diabetics. Both high-glucose and high-fat meals may induce postprandial inflammation, and this is exaggerated by a high meal content of advanced glycation end products (AGE) and partly ablated by inclusion of certain antioxidants or antioxidant-containing foods within the meal. Healthy eating patterns are associated with lower circulating concentrations of inflammatory markers. Among the components of a healthy diet, whole grains, vegetables and fruits, and fish are all associated with lower inflammation. AGE are associated with enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. SFA and trans-MUFA are pro-inflammatory, while PUFA, especially long-chain n-3 PUFA, are anti-inflammatory. Hyperglycaemia induces both postprandial and chronic low-grade inflammation. Vitamin C, vitamin E and carotenoids decrease the circulating concentrations of inflammatory markers. Potential mechanisms are described and research gaps, which limit our understanding of the interaction between diet and postprandial and chronic low-grade inflammation, are identified.

872 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Benefits of nutrigenomics to study complex physiological effects of the ‘whole-grain package’, and the most promising ways for improving the nutritional quality of cereal products are discussed.
Abstract: Epidemiological studies have clearly shown that whole-grain cereals can protect against obesity, diabetes, CVD and cancers. The specific effects of food structure (increased satiety, reduced transit time and glycaemic response), fibre (improved faecal bulking and satiety, viscosity and SCFA production, and/or reduced glycaemic response) and Mg (better glycaemic homeostasis through increased insulin secretion), together with the antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties of numerous bioactive compounds, especially those in the bran and germ (minerals, trace elements, vitamins, carotenoids, polyphenols and alkylresorcinols), are today well-recognised mechanisms in this protection. Recent findings, the exhaustive listing of bioactive compounds found in whole-grain wheat, their content in whole-grain, bran and germ fractions and their estimated bioavailability, have led to new hypotheses. The involvement of polyphenols in cell signalling and gene regulation, and of sulfur compounds, lignin and phytic acid should be considered in antioxidant protection. Whole-grain wheat is also a rich source of methyl donors and lipotropes (methionine, betaine, choline, inositol and folates) that may be involved in cardiovascular and/or hepatic protection, lipid metabolism and DNA methylation. Potential protective effects of bound phenolic acids within the colon, of the B-complex vitamins on the nervous system and mental health, of oligosaccharides as prebiotics, of compounds associated with skeleton health, and of other compounds such as alpha-linolenic acid, policosanol, melatonin, phytosterols and para-aminobenzoic acid also deserve to be studied in more depth. Finally, benefits of nutrigenomics to study complex physiological effects of the 'whole-grain package', and the most promising ways for improving the nutritional quality of cereal products are discussed.

871 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A full appreciation of folate's history as a public health issue, its biology, and an overview of available biomarkers and their interpretation across a range of clinical and population-based uses are provided.
Abstract: The Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) project is designed to provide evidence-based advice to anyone with an interest in the role of nutrition in health. Specifically, the BOND program provides state-of-the-art information and service with regard to selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers of nutrient exposure, status, function, and effect. To accomplish this objective, expert panels are recruited to evaluate the literature and to draft comprehensive reports on the current state of the art with regard to specific nutrient biology and available biomarkers for assessing nutrients in body tissues at the individual and population level. Phase I of the BOND project includes the evaluation of biomarkers for 6 nutrients: iodine, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12. This review represents the second in the series of reviews and covers all relevant aspects of folate biology and biomarkers. The article is organized to provide the reader with a full appreciation of folate's history as a public health issue, its biology, and an overview of available biomarkers (serum folate, RBC folate, and plasma homocysteine concentrations) and their interpretation across a range of clinical and population-based uses. The article also includes a list of priority research needs for advancing the area of folate biomarkers related to nutritional health status and development.

813 citations