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Author

Frank Hardman

Bio: Frank Hardman is an academic researcher from University of York. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Literacy & Discourse analysis. The author has an hindex of 21, co-authored 63 publication(s) receiving 2342 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Frank Hardman include Newcastle University & University of Newcastle.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The study set out to investigate the impact of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) on teacher–pupil interaction at Key Stage 2 in the teaching of literacy and numeracy. As part of the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies, IWBs have been made widely available as a pedagogic tool for promoting interactive whole class teaching. In order to investigate their impact, the project looked specifically at the interactive styles used by a national sample of primary teachers. A total of 184 lessons were observed over a two‐year period. Using a computerised observation schedule, teachers were observed in literacy and numeracy lessons, with and without an IWB. The findings suggest that IWBs appear to be having some impact on the discourse moves used in whole class teaching, but this impact is not as extensive as that claimed by the advocates of IWBs. Lessons which used IWBs had a faster pace and less time was spent on group work. The implications of the findings for classroom pedagogy, teachers' professional developme...

256 citations

Book
01 Jan 2003
Abstract: The study set out to investigate the impact of the official endorsement of ‘interactive whole class teaching’ on the interaction and discourse styles of primary teachers while teaching the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies. In both strategies, interactive whole class teaching is seen as an ‘active teaching’ model promoting high quality dialogue and discussion between teachers and pupils. Pupils are expected to play an active part in discussion by asking questions, contributing ideas and explaining and demonstrating their thinking to the class. Using computerized systematic classroom observation, discourse analysis of transcripts and a questionnaire, the project looked specifically at the discourse strategies currently used by a national sample of primary teachers when teaching the literacy and numeracy strategies and their perceptions of current practices. The findings suggest that traditional patterns of whole class interaction have not been dramatically transformed by the strategies. The implica...

220 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: One hundred and sixty-two student secondary teachers were followed through a postgraduate certificate in education course at a university department of education in England to identify, using a variety of methods, changes in their thinking about the teaching and learning process and initial training course. While it was found that student teachers' knowledge of teaching gained from earlier experience was highly influential in their views on teaching and learning and interpretation of the course, differences between individuals and curriculum groups emerged which suggest that the course of training could not be considered a constant, as had been assumed by earlier studies. Several issues are raised and discussed concerning the influence of preservice courses on student teachers' thinking and classroom practice, together with their implications for course design and the selection of students.

174 citations

01 Sep 1999
Abstract: This report reviews and summarizes the findings of a research and development project investigating effective pedagogy using Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in literacy and numeracy in primary schools in Great Britain. It also provides information about the main stages of the research process and the model of teaching and learning underpinning the team's approach to supporting and investigating teachers' development, and it provides illustrations of effective practice rich enough to encompass the complexity of the choices teachers have made in deciding when, when not and how to use ICT to strengthen their teaching in literacy and numeracy. Included in the report are a number of examples illustrating effective use of ICT by teachers. After a summary and an outline description of the project, the report presents 12 illustrations showing how teachers in the project used ICT to support their teaching of literacy and numeracy; these illustrations are the main outcomes from the development work and its analysis. (Contains 12 tables and figures of data. Appendixes contain survey results, existing research and publications about ICT, a brief review of research on effective pedagogy, some relationships between teachers' thinking and observed behavior, the range of schools in the development phase, gains in pupils' attainment during the development work, and a 15-item list of related Web sites.) (RS) Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made from the original document. Ways forward with ICT: effective pedago...iteracy and numeracy in primary schools http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/00001369.htm U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Educational Research and improvement EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC) O This document has been reproduced as received from the person or organization originating it. O Minor changes have been made to improve reproduction quality. Points of view or opinions stated in this document do not necessarily represent official OERI position or policy. UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE 1 PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE AND DISSEMINATE THIS MATERIAL HAS BEEN GRANTED BY

162 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper addresses the role of classroom discourse in supporting children’s learning in Kenyan primary schools. The discourse strategies of 27 teachers teaching English, mathematics and science across the primary phase were intensively studied using discourse analysis and semi‐structured interviews. A survey questionnaire (n = 359) was also used to explore teacher perceptions of classroom discourse practices. The findings revealed the dominance of teacher‐led recitation in which rote and repetition dominated the classroom discourse with little attention being paid to securing pupil understanding. The wider implications of the findings for improving the quality of classroom discourse in Kenyan primary schools are considered together with the need for further research into how the wider social order is influencing discourse practices in Kenyan primary schools.

126 citations


Cited by
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Journal Article

2,950 citations

Book Chapter
01 Jan 2005
Abstract: Whilst many definitions of formative assessment have been offered, there is no clear rationale to define and delimit it within broader theories of pedagogy. This paper aims to offer such a rationale, within a framework which can also unify the diverse set of practices which have been described as formative. The analysis is used to relate formative assessment both to other pedagogic initiatives, notably cognitive acceleration and dynamic assessment, and to some of the existing literature on models of self-regulated learning and on classroom discourse. This framework should indicate potentially fruitful lines for further enquiry, whilst at the same time opening up new ways of helping teachers to implement formative practices more effectively.

1,854 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Simon Borg1
Abstract: This paper reviews a selection of research from the field of foreign and second language teaching into what is referred to here as teacher cognition – what teachers think, know, and believe and the relationships of these mental constructs to what teachers do in the language teaching classroom. Within a framework suggested by more general mainstream educational research on teacher cognition, language teacher cognition is here discussed with reference to three main themes: (1) cognition and prior language learning experience, (2) cognition and teacher education, and (3) cognition and classroom practice. In addition, the findings of studies into two specific curricular areas in language teaching which have been examined by teacher cognition – grammar teaching and literacy – are discussed. This review indicates that, while the study of teacher cognition has established itself on the research agenda in the field of language teaching and provided valuable insight into the mental lives of language teachers, a clear sense of unity is lacking in the work and there are several major issues in language teaching which have yet to be explored from the perspective of teacher cognition.

1,802 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Whilst many definitions of formative assessment have been offered, there is no clear rationale to define and delimit it within broader theories of pedagogy. This paper aims to offer such a rationale, within a framework which can also unify the diverse set of practices which have been described as formative. The analysis is used to relate formative assessment both to other pedagogic initiatives, notably cognitive acceleration and dynamic assessment, and to some of the existing literature on models of self-regulated learning and on classroom discourse. This framework should indicate potentially fruitful lines for further enquiry, whilst at the same time opening up new ways of helping teachers to implement formative practices more effectively.

1,489 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: 93 empirical studies on learning to teach were reviewed in order to establish what is currently known about how people learn to teach and to critique the quality of the reporting of that research. Among other observations concerning teacher education, the review highlights the tensions between the hopes and expectations of teacher educators and the expectations and experiences of beginning teachers. While this review supports the findings of others that many traditional programs of teacher education have little effect upon the firmly held beliefs of the beginning teachers, it also provides examples of successful programs. Such programs typically build upon the beliefs of pre service teachers and feature systematic and consistent long-term support in a collaborative setting. It is concluded that this body of research has advanced the field in significant ways, offering new directions for research and program reform. The critique of the papers themselves reveals that authors need to pay more careful attenti...

1,278 citations