Other affiliations: University of California, Berkeley, Kyoto University, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill ...read more
Bio: Franklin Kim is an academic researcher from ShanghaiTech University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Graphene & Nanorod. The author has an hindex of 36, co-authored 51 publication(s) receiving 22925 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Franklin Kim include University of California, Berkeley & Kyoto University.
Topics: Graphene, Nanorod, Langmuir–Blodgett film, Graphite oxide, Monolayer
Papers published on a yearly basis
04 Mar 2003-Advanced Materials
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of 1D nanostructures can be found in this article, where the authors provide a comprehensive overview of current research activities that concentrate on one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure (wires, rods, belts and tubes).
Abstract: This article provides a comprehensive review of current research activities that concentrate on one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures—wires, rods, belts, and tubes—whose lateral dimensions fall anywhere in the range of 1 to 100 nm. We devote the most attention to 1D nanostructures that have been synthesized in relatively copious quantities using chemical methods. We begin this article with an overview of synthetic strategies that have been exploited to achieve 1D growth. We then elaborate on these approaches in the following four sections: i) anisotropic growth dictated by the crystallographic structure of a solid material; ii) anisotropic growth confined and directed by various templates; iii) anisotropic growth kinetically controlled by supersaturation or through the use of an appropriate capping reagent; and iv) new concepts not yet fully demonstrated, but with long-term potential in generating 1D nanostructures. Following is a discussion of techniques for generating various types of important heterostructured nanowires. By the end of this article, we highlight a range of unique properties (e.g., thermal, mechanical, electronic, optoelectronic, optical, nonlinear optical, and field emission) associated with different types of 1D nanostructures. We also briefly discuss a number of methods potentially useful for assembling 1D nanostructures into functional devices based on crossbar junctions, and complex architectures such as 2D and 3D periodic lattices. We conclude this review with personal perspectives on the directions towards which future research on this new class of nanostructured materials might be directed.
07 Jul 2003-Angewandte Chemie
TL;DR: A low-temperature, large-scale, and versatile synthetic process is needed before ZnO nanowire arrays find realistic applications in solar energy conversion, light emission, and other promising areas, and the ease of commercial scale-up is presented.
Abstract: Since the first report of ultraviolet lasing from ZnO nanowires, substantial effort has been devoted to the development of synthetic methodologies for one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures. Among the various techniques described in the literature, evaporation and condensation processes are favored for their simplicity and high-quality products, but these gas-phase approaches generally require economically prohibitive temperatures of 800–900 8C. Despite recent MOCVD schemes that reduced the deposition temperature to 450 8C by using organometallic zinc precursors, the commercial potential of gas-phase-grown ZnO nanowires remains constrained by the expensive and/or insulating (for example, Al2O3) substrates required for oriented growth, as well as the size and cost of the vapor deposition systems. A low-temperature, large-scale, and versatile synthetic process is needed before ZnO nanowire arrays find realistic applications in solar energy conversion, light emission, and other promising areas. Solution approaches to ZnO nanowires are appealing because of their low growth temperatures and good potential for scale-up. In this regard, Vayssieres et al. developed a hydrothermal process for producing arrays of ZnO microrods and nanorods on conducting glass substrates at 95 8C. Recently, a seeded growth process was used to make helical ZnO rods and columns at a similar temperature. Here we expand on these synthetic methods to produce homogeneous and dense arrays of ZnO nanowires that can be grown on arbitrary substrates under mild aqueous conditions. We present data for arrays on four-inch (ca. 10 cm) silicon wafers and two-inch plastic substrates, which demonstrate the ease of commercial scale-up. The simple two-step procedure yields oriented nanowire films with the largest surface area yet reported for nanowire arrays. The growth process ensures that a majority of the nanowires in the array are in direct contact with the substrate and provide a continuous pathway for carrier transport, an important feature for future electronic devices based on these materials. Well-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays were grown using a simple two-step process. In the first step, ZnO nanocrystals (5–10 nm in diameter) were spin-cast several times onto a four-inch Si(100) wafer to form a 50–200-nm thick film of crystal seeds. Between coatings, the wafer was annealed at 150 8C to ensure particle adhesion to the wafer surface. The ZnO nanocrystals were prepared according to the method of Pacholski. A NaOH solution in methanol (0.03m) was added slowly to a solution of zinc acetate dihydrate (0.01m) in methanol at 60 8C and stirred for two hours. The resulting nanoparticles are spherical and stable for at least two weeks in solution. After uniformly coating the silicon wafer with ZnO nanocrystals, hydrothermal ZnO growth was carried out by suspending the wafer upside-down in an open crystallizing dish filled with an aqueous solution of zinc nitrate hydrate (0.025m) and methenamine or diethylenetriamine (0.025m) at 90 8C. Reaction times spanned from 0.5 to 6 h. The wafer was then removed from solution, rinsed with deionized water, and dried. A field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to examine the morphology of the nanowire array across the entire wafer, while single nanowires were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nanowire crystallinity and growth direction were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction techniques. SEM images taken of several four-inch samples showed that the entire wafer was coated with a highly uniform and densely packed array of ZnO nanowires (Figure 1). X-ray diffraction (not shown) gave a wurtzite ZnO pattern with an enhanced (002) peak resulting from the vertical orientation of the nanowires. A typical synthesis (1.5 h) yielded wires with diameters ranging between 40–80 nm and lengths of 1.5–2 mm.
TL;DR: Single-layer graphite oxide can be viewed as an unconventional type of soft material and has recently been recognized as a promising material for composite and electronics applications and it is of both scientific curiosity and technical importance to know how these atomically thin sheets assemble.
Abstract: Single-layer graphite oxide can be viewed as an unconventional type of soft material and has recently been recognized as a promising material for composite and electronics applications. It is of both scientific curiosity and technical importance to know how these atomically thin sheets assemble. There are two fundamental geometries of interacting single layers: edge-to-edge and face-to-face. Such interactions were studied at the air−water interface by Langmuir−Blodgett assembly. Stable monolayers of graphite oxide single layers were obtained without the need for any surfactant or stabilizing agent, due to the strong electrostatic repulsion between the 2D confined layers. Such repulsion also prevented the single layers from overlapping during compression, leading to excellent reversibility of the monolayers. In contrast to molecular and hard colloidal particle monolayers, the single layers tend to fold and wrinkle at edges to resist collapsing into multilayers. The monolayers can be transferred to a substr...
TL;DR: It is reported that GO is an amphiphile with hydrophilic edges and a more hydrophobic basal plane, and the ease of its conversion to chemically modified graphene could enable new opportunities in solution processing of functional materials.
Abstract: Graphite oxide sheet, now called graphene oxide (GO), is the product of chemical exfoliation of graphite and has been known for more than a century. GO has been largely viewed as hydrophilic, presumably due to its excellent colloidal stability in water. Here we report that GO is an amphiphile with hydrophilic edges and a more hydrophobic basal plane. GO can act like a surfactant, as measured by its ability to adsorb on interfaces and lower the surface or interfacial tension. Since the degree of ionization of the edge −COOH groups is affected by pH, GO’s amphiphilicity can be tuned by pH. In addition, size-dependent amphiphilicity of GO sheets is observed. Since each GO sheet is a single molecule as well as a colloidal particle, the molecule−colloid duality makes it behave like both a molecular and a colloidal surfactant. For example, GO is capable of creating highly stable Pickering emulsions of organic solvents like solid particles. It can also act as a molecular dispersing agent to process insoluble mat...
02 Aug 2003-Nano Letters
TL;DR: In this article, the Langmuir−Blodgett technique was used to assemble monolayers (with areas over 20 cm2) of aligned silver nanowires that are ∼50 nm in diameter and 2−3 μm in length.
Abstract: Langmuir−Blodgett technique was used to assemble monolayers (with areas over 20 cm2) of aligned silver nanowires that are ∼50 nm in diameter and 2−3 μm in length. These nanowires possess pentagonal cross-sections and pyramidal tips. They are close-packed and are aligned parallel to each other. The resulting nanowire monolayers serve as excellent substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with large electromagnetic field enhancement factors (2 × 105 for thiol and 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 2 × 109 for Rhodamine 6G) and can readily be used in ultrasensitive, molecule-specific sensing utilizing vibrational signatures.
01 Jan 2015
15 Sep 2010-Advanced Materials
TL;DR: An overview of the synthesis, properties, and applications of graphene and related materials (primarily, graphite oxide and its colloidal suspensions and materials made from them), from a materials science perspective.
Abstract: There is intense interest in graphene in fields such as physics, chemistry, and materials science, among others. Interest in graphene's exceptional physical properties, chemical tunability, and potential for applications has generated thousands of publications and an accelerating pace of research, making review of such research timely. Here is an overview of the synthesis, properties, and applications of graphene and related materials (primarily, graphite oxide and its colloidal suspensions and materials made from them), from a materials science perspective.
18 Mar 2005-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: The interest in nanoscale materials stems from the fact that new properties are acquired at this length scale and, equally important, that these properties are equally important.
Abstract: The interest in nanoscale materials stems from the fact that new properties are acquired at this length scale and, equally important, that these properties * To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone, 404-8940292; fax, 404-894-0294; e-mail, mostafa.el-sayed@ chemistry.gatech.edu. † Case Western Reserve UniversitysMillis 2258. ‡ Phone, 216-368-5918; fax, 216-368-3006; e-mail, email@example.com. § Georgia Institute of Technology. 1025 Chem. Rev. 2005, 105, 1025−1102
13 Jan 2010-Chemical Reviews