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Frans Jorissen

Bio: Frans Jorissen is an academic researcher from University of Angers. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Benthic zone & Foraminifera. The author has an hindex of 58, co-authored 131 publication(s) receiving 12421 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Frans Jorissen include University of Bordeaux & Centre national de la recherche scientifique.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We present a conceptual model which explains benthic foraminiferal microhabitat preferences in terms of differences in the downward organic flux. We argue that under oligotrophic conditions the microhabitat depth is controlled by the availability of metabolizable food particles in the sediment. Under more eutrophic conditions, the ecosystem is no longer food-controlled, but instead, a critical oxygen level determines down to what depth we find a living fauna. Under food-limited conditions, anaerobic degradation of organic matter may provide an additional food source around the redox front, which could explain deep infaunal maxima reported in the literature. In a sample transect through the Adriatic Sea, both microhabitat controls (food-limited and oxygen-limited) are present. On the shelf and the upper part of the slope, the rather shallow depth of the microhabitat is controlled by a critical oxygen level. In the 1250 m deep southern basin and on the lower part of the slope, on the contrary, the availability of metabolizable organic matter, and not a critical oxygen level, determines down to what depth living foraminifera are found.

885 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Eelco J. Rohling1, M. Fenton1, Frans Jorissen2, Philippe Bertrand2  +2 moreInstitutions (4)
09 Jul 1998-Nature
Abstract: Existing techniques for estimating natural fluctuations of sea level and global ice-volume from the recent geological past exploit fossil coral-reef terraces or oxygen-isotope records from benthic foraminifera. Fossil reefs reveal the magnitude of sea-level peaks (highstands) of the past million years, but fail to produce significant values for minima (lowstands) before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) about 20,000 years ago, a time at which sea level was about 120 m lower than it is today1,2,3,4. The isotope method provides a continuous sea-level record for the past 140,000 years (ref. 5) (calibrated with fossil-reef data6), but the realistic uncertainty in the sea-level estimates is around ±20 m. Here we present improved lowstand estimates—extending the record back to 500,000 years before present—using an independent method based on combining evidence of extreme high-salinity conditions in the glacial Red Sea with a simple hydraulic control model of water flow through the Strait of Bab-el-Mandab, which links the Red Sea to the open ocean. We find that the world can glaciate more intensely than during the LGM by up to an additional 20-m lowering of global sea-level. Such a 20-m difference is equivalent to a change in global ice-volume of the order of today's Greenland and West Antarctic ice-sheets.

544 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Lisa A. Levin1, Werner Ekau2, Andrew J. Gooday3, Frans Jorissen  +5 moreInstitutions (5)
08 Oct 2009-Biogeosciences
TL;DR: Large areas of low oxygen persist seasonally or continuously beneath upwelling regions, associated with the upper parts of oxygen minimum zones (SE Pacific, W Africa, N Indian Ocean), and support a resident fauna that is adapted to survive and reproduce at oxygen concentrations.
Abstract: . Coastal hypoxia (defined here as Hypoxia alters both the structure and function of benthic communities, but effects may differ with regional hypoxia history. Human-caused hypoxia is generally linked to eutrophication, and occurs adjacent to watersheds with large populations or agricultural activities. Many occurrences are seasonal, within estuaries, fjords or enclosed seas of the North Atlantic and the NW Pacific Oceans. Benthic faunal responses, elicited at oxygen levels below 2 ml L−1, typically involve avoidance or mortality of large species and elevated abundances of enrichment opportunists, sometimes prior to population crashes. Areas of low oxygen persist seasonally or continuously beneath upwelling regions, associated with the upper parts of oxygen minimum zones (SE Pacific, W Africa, N Indian Ocean). These have a distribution largely distinct from eutrophic areas and support a resident fauna that is adapted to survive and reproduce at oxygen concentrations

520 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Christophe Fontanier1, Frans Jorissen1, L Licari1, A Alexandre1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Apr 2002-
TL;DR: The exported flux of organic matter appears to be the main parameter controlling the composition and the vertical distribution of benthic foraminiferal faunas below the sediment-water interface.
Abstract: In the meso-oligotrophic Bay of Biscay, a diminishing downward organic matter flux with depth is accompanied by an important decrease of the live foraminiferal density. Although bottom water oxygenation is not directly influenced by organic matter input, the oxygenation of interstitial waters and the primary redox fronts do change in response to variations of the organic matter flux. The occurrence of deep and intermediate infaunal taxa can be linked to fundamental redox fronts and putative associated bacterial consortia. Our data are in agreement with the TROX-model, which explains the benthic foraminiferal microhabitat as a function of organic flux and benthic ecosystem oxygenation. Both the depth of the principle redox fronts and the microhabitat of deep infaunal species show important increases with depth. At the deepest oligotrophic stations, deep infaunal faunas become relatively poor. Therefore, the exported flux of organic matter appears to be the main parameter controlling the composition and the vertical distribution of benthic foraminiferal faunas below the sediment-water interface. The oxygenation of pore waters plays only a minor role. A species-level adaptation of the TROX-model is presented for the Bay of Biscay.

425 citations


Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2007-
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on the paleoceanographical proxies based on deep-sea benthic foraminiferal assemblage characteristics, and presents the following three proxy relationships that are promising: those between benthic foraminiferal faunas and benthic ecosystem oxygenation, export productivity, and deep-sea water mass characteristics. Under most circumstances the composition of deep-sea benthic foraminiferal assemblages is controlled by a rather limited number of environmental factors. The available proxies based on benthic foraminiferal assemblage composition show that they have major potential, but further research is needed to add or improve the quantitative aspects. In many cases, such as bottom water oxygenation, and Corg flux to the ocean floor, it can be done by significantly increasing the size of existing databases. In other cases such as periodicity of the organic flux, time series observations are necessary. A major obstacle is insufficient knowledge of the differences between recent and fossil faunas due to taphonomical alterations. This phenomenon, of importance for all paleoceanographic proxies, can to some extent be solved relatively easily in the case of foraminiferal assemblages by detailed studies of their vertical succession in sediments deposited in the last 5,000 years, when environmental conditions were probably rather invariable in many areas. Proxies based on foraminiferal assemblage composition are fundamentally different from all geochemical proxies, and thus may provide independent reconstructions of essential oceanographic parameters.

372 citations


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Journal ArticleDOI
Godfrey M. Hewitt1Institutions (1)
22 Jun 2000-Nature
TL;DR: The present genetic structure of populations, species and communities has been mainly formed by Quaternary ice ages, and genetic, fossil and physical data combined can greatly help understanding of how organisms were so affected.
Abstract: Global climate has fluctuated greatly during the past three million years, leading to the recent major ice ages. An inescapable consequence for most living organisms is great changes in their distribution, which are expressed differently in boreal, temperate and tropical zones. Such range changes can be expected to have genetic consequences, and the advent of DNA technology provides most suitable markers to examine these. Several good data sets are now available, which provide tests of expectations, insights into species colonization and unexpected genetic subdivision and mixture of species. The genetic structure of human populations may be viewed in the same context. The present genetic structure of populations, species and communities has been mainly formed by Quaternary ice ages, and genetic, fossil and physical data combined can greatly help our understanding of how organisms were so affected.

5,877 citations


01 Jan 2008-
Abstract: Dead zones in the coastal oceans have spread exponentially since the 1960s and have serious consequences for ecosystem functioning. The formation of dead zones has been exacerbated by the increase in primary production and consequent worldwide coastal eutrophication fueled by riverine runoff of fertilizers and the burning of fossil fuels. Enhanced primary production results in an accumulation of particulate organic matter, which encourages microbial activity and the consumption of dissolved oxygen in bottom waters. Dead zones have now been reported from more than 400 systems, affecting a total area of more than 245,000 square kilometers, and are probably a key stressor on marine ecosystems.

4,230 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
23 Jun 2006-Science
TL;DR: Reconstructed time lines, causes, and consequences of change in 12 once diverse and productive estuaries and coastal seas worldwide show similar patterns: Human impacts have depleted >90% of formerly important species, destroyed >65% of seagrass and wetland habitat, degraded water quality, and accelerated species invasions.
Abstract: Estuarine and coastal transformation is as old as civilization yet has dramatically accelerated over the past 150 to 300 years. Reconstructed time lines, causes, and consequences of change in 12 once diverse and productive estuaries and coastal seas worldwide show similar patterns: Human impacts have depleted >90% of formerly important species, destroyed >65% of seagrass and wetland habitat, degraded water quality, and accelerated species invasions. Twentieth-century conservation efforts achieved partial recovery of upper trophic levels but have so far failed to restore former ecosystem structure and function. Our results provide detailed historical baselines and quantitative targets for ecosystem-based management and marine conservation.

2,461 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Godfrey M. Hewitt1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Diversity from southern to northern Europe in the extent of allelic variation and species subdivision is seen; this is attributed to rapid expansion northward and the varied topography of southern refugia allowing populations to diverge through several ice ages.
Abstract: Population structure is the result of both present processes and past history. Molecular markers are proving of great value in describing the former, and it is important to similarly determine the latter in order to understand their respective contributions. The study of palaeo-climates has also advanced significantly, and in particular that of the Pleistocene ice ages, which modified species ranges considerably. The last ice age and rapid post-glacial colonization of Europe is summarized. Possible population genetic consequences of expansion northward from southern refugia, and those of remaining in these mountainous regions are discussed. A series of recent case studies are detailed where DNA sequence information has been used to describe species genetic variation and subdivision across Europe. These include a grasshopper, the hedgehog, oak trees, the common beech, the black alder, the brown bear, newts, shrews, water vole, silver fir and house mice. These molecular data confirm southern peninsulas of Europe as major ice age refugia, and in most cases demonstrate that genetically distinct taxa emerged from them. They can thus define genomic differences and so greatly augment previous fossil data. The refugial genomes contributed differently in various species to the re-colonization of Europe, with three broad patterns described as paradigms—«grasshopper», «hedgehog» and «bear». These different expansion patterns produced clusters of hybrid zones where they made contact, and it is argued that many species genomes may be further cryptically subdivided. A reduction in diversity from southern to northern Europe in the extent of allelic variation and species subdivision is seen; this is attributed to rapid expansion northward and the varied topography of southern refugia allowing populations to diverge through several ice ages. The differences in DNA sequence indicate that some species have been diverging in refugial regions for a few ice ages at most, whilst distinct lineages in other species suggest much more ancient separation.

2,436 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In marine ecosystems, rising atmospheric CO2 and climate change are associated with concurrent shifts in temperature, circulation, stratification, nutrient input, oxygen content, and ocean acidification, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects.
Abstract: In marine ecosystems, rising atmospheric CO2 and climate change are associated with concurrent shifts in temperature, circulation, stratification, nutrient input, oxygen content, and ocean acidification, with potentially wideranging biological effects. Population-level shifts are occurring because of physiological intolerance to new environments, altered dispersal patterns, and changes in species interactions. Together with local climate-driven invasion and extinction, these processes result in altered community structure and diversity, including possible emergence of novel ecosystems. Impacts are particularly striking for the poles and the tropics, because of the sensitivity of polar ecosystems to sea-ice retreat and poleward species migrations as well as the sensitivity of coral-algal symbiosis to minor increases in temperature. Midlatitude upwelling systems, like the California Current, exhibit strong linkages between climate and species distributions, phenology, and demography. Aggregated effects may modify energy and material flows as well as biogeochemical cycles, eventually impacting the overall ecosystem functioning and services upon which people and societies depend.

1,786 citations


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Performance
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Author's H-index: 58

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
20213
20201
20192
20186
20173
20164