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Franz Alexander

Bio: Franz Alexander is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Norm (social) & Medical sociology. The author has an hindex of 3, co-authored 3 publications receiving 23 citations.

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TL;DR: For example, the authors argues that human beings must be united in one large, well-integrated social organization; there must be a technique for settling conflicting interests; and a democratic state requires a more socialized kind of human material than a social order based on suppression and coercion.
Abstract: Rather than to seek the causes of war, it is perhaps more profitable to attempt to discover the conditions under which peace is possible. The American continent offers an opportunity for this type of study. Since the inhabitants of the Americas are largely of European origin, it is less plausible to assume that their psychological structure has been radically modified than to assume that a difference in social conditions is responsible for the more peaceful history of this continent. Where organized groups co-exist without conflicting interests, or with supplementary interests, peace is possible, and the adjacent groups may fuse into a single economic and political unit. The fact that personal conflicts within a group are settled by law or by norm is encouraging in suggesting the possibility of extending this type of settlement to intergroup conflicts. In order for norms to provide a basis for the peaceful resolution of conflicts, socialization of the individual is necessary. A democratic state requires a more socialized kind of human material than a social order based on suppression and coercion. In considering Freud's statement that wars result from man's innate destructiveness, it should be borne in mind that human aggression frequently finds sublimated outlets. There are two important conditions for peace: (1) human beings must be united in one large, well-integrated social organization; (2) there must be a technique for settling conflicting interests. It is scarcely conceivable that these conditions can be realized until one powerful group subdues the weaker ones and coerces them to participate in a larger organization. A future league of nations must recognize the necessity of coercion until consensus is established. Although the democracies should lead this super-national organization, they are averse to the use force. They must, however, recognize their call to assume leadership.

12 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a correct application of psychoanalytic concepts to sociology is proposed, combining the historical-cultural-economic understanding of social situations with the knowledge of emotional mechanisms according to which individuals react to their social situation.
Abstract: Social processes consist of the interaction of biologically independent individuals. This interaction can only be described and understood in terms of psychology. Hence sociology and the psychology of the individual belong close together. Yet sociology and psychology developed independently. Recently recognition of the necessity of integration of both disciplines is increasing. The first attempts at applying a psychological point of view in sociology and a sociological point of view in psychology are characterized by grave methodological errors. One of these errors may be called "psychoanalyzing society"; another, "the sociological point of view in psychiatry." Demonstration of the fallacies contained in these two procedures is made. A correct application of psychoanalytic concepts to sociology is proposed. The historical-cultural-economic understanding of social situations should be combined with the knowledge of emotional mechanisms according to which individuals react to their social situation. The pra...

7 citations

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TL;DR: Frustation and gratification are funcions of each other as discussed by the authors, and frustration has a useful role to play as part of the developmental process of adaptation, but only those frustations which leave no hope of solution and are therefore wholly destructive in effect can and should be eliminated.
Abstract: Frustration and gratification are funcions of each other. Frustation has a useful role to play as part of the developmental process of adaptation. Only those frustations which leave no hope of solution and are therefore wholly destructive in effect can and should be eliminated.

4 citations


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TL;DR: Why Men Rebel was first published in 1970 on the heels of a decade of political violence and protest not only in remote corners of Africa and Southeast Asia, but also at home in the United States as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Why Men Rebel was first published in 1970 on the heels of a decade of political violence and protest not only in remote corners of Africa and Southeast Asia, but also at home in the United States. Forty years later, the world is riveted on uprisings in the Middle East, and the United States has been overtaken by a focus on international terrorism and a fascination with citizen movements at home and abroad. Do the arguments of 1970 apply today? Why Men Rebel lends new insight into contemporary challenges of transnational recruitment and organization, multimedia mobilization, and terrorism.

1,412 citations

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TL;DR: The relationship between ethnocentrism and narcissism has rarely been studied, and there is little agreement about what this relationship might be as mentioned in this paper, whereas research indicates they are better viewed as complex and multidimensional constructs.
Abstract: Ethnocentrism can be seen as an expression of narcissism at the group level. However, the relationship between ethnocentrism and narcissism has rarely been studied, and there is little agreement about what this relationship might be. Both have also been treated as simple, unidimensional constructs, whereas research indicates they are better viewed as complex and multidimensional. New research using multidimensional measures of both constructs was therefore conducted in a sample of 264 undergraduates. Narcissism, primarily its covert form, related positively to intergroup expressions of ethnocentrism, but negatively to intragroup expressions. In addition, both intergroup expressions of ethnocentrism and covert narcissism were related to disliking others. The findings suggest that intergroup expressions of ethnocentrism are based on personal self-aggrandizement, whereas intragroup expressions are based on personal self-transcendence. In addition, they suggest that narcissistic people have generally selfish and exploitative attitudes, even towards their own groups. They also emphasize the importance of investigating both ethnocentrism and narcissism as complex multidimensional constructs.

60 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

49 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used a feedback mechanism that links all the dimensions of modernization together and the introduction of variables that can reflect it in a model and present some results of an econometric investigation that recognizes this interaction.
Abstract: 1 of the most important requisites of development is to cultivate those conditions which are appropriate for the generation of a surplus the distribution of which in turn usually generates friction among the various social classes and factions that advance claims to it. Thus modernization being a process of change has economic social political and institutional dimensions; and the changes can result in sociopolitical instability which affects the continuation of the ability of the economy to grow and of the society to develop. The objective of this paper is to test for a feedback mechanism that links all the dimensions of modernization together and the introduction of variables that can reflect it in a model and to present some results of an econometric investigation that recognizes this interaction. Estimation for the model is based on a sample of 104 noncommunist countries for the year 1967 that includes economic and noneconomic variables. The model is used to predict the values of the per capita income and gross capital formation both within and outside of the sample period. Its predictive ability is remarkable as the statistics represented in the tables and charts demonstrate. The model is also used in a number of simulations reflecting a variety of social and political conditions and scenarios. In this relation it is found for example that the social and political atmosphere has profound effects on the economic evolution of a society. The sociopolitical gap defined as the difference between actual sociopolitical envirnoments (characterized by various degrees of instability) and the sociopolitically stable environment (characterized by no sociopolitical violence) retards the development process. The presence and the magnitude of this gap as well as the various trade-offs lead the author to a conclusion of guarded pessimism in relation to the choices and future of developing countries. An appendix lists the types of political violence identified as variables.

32 citations