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Franz Josef Och

Bio: Franz Josef Och is an academic researcher from Google. The author has contributed to research in topics: Machine translation & Example-based machine translation. The author has an hindex of 46, co-authored 89 publications receiving 22235 citations. Previous affiliations of Franz Josef Och include RWTH Aachen University & University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An important result is that refined alignment models with a first-order dependence and a fertility model yield significantly better results than simple heuristic models.
Abstract: We present and compare various methods for computing word alignments using statistical or heuristic models. We consider the five alignment models presented in Brown, Della Pietra, Della Pietra, and Mercer (1993), the hidden Markov alignment model, smoothing techniques, and refinements. These statistical models are compared with two heuristic models based on the Dice coefficient. We present different methods for combining word alignments to perform a symmetrization of directed statistical alignment models. As evaluation criterion, we use the quality of the resulting Viterbi alignment compared to a manually produced reference alignment. We evaluate the models on the German-English Verbmobil task and the French-English Hansards task. We perform a detailed analysis of various design decisions of our statistical alignment system and evaluate these on training corpora of various sizes. An important result is that refined alignment models with a first-order dependence and a fertility model yield significantly better results than simple heuristic models. In the Appendix, we present an efficient training algorithm for the alignment models presented.

4,402 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
27 May 2003
TL;DR: The empirical results suggest that the highest levels of performance can be obtained through relatively simple means: heuristic learning of phrase translations from word-based alignments and lexical weighting of phrase translation.
Abstract: We propose a new phrase-based translation model and decoding algorithm that enables us to evaluate and compare several, previously proposed phrase-based translation models. Within our framework, we carry out a large number of experiments to understand better and explain why phrase-based models out-perform word-based models. Our empirical results, which hold for all examined language pairs, suggest that the highest levels of performance can be obtained through relatively simple means: heuristic learning of phrase translations from word-based alignments and lexical weighting of phrase translations. Surprisingly, learning phrases longer than three words and learning phrases from high-accuracy word-level alignment models does not have a strong impact on performance. Learning only syntactically motivated phrases degrades the performance of our systems.

3,778 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
07 Jul 2003
TL;DR: It is shown that significantly better results can often be obtained if the final evaluation criterion is taken directly into account as part of the training procedure.
Abstract: Often, the training procedure for statistical machine translation models is based on maximum likelihood or related criteria. A general problem of this approach is that there is only a loose relation to the final translation quality on unseen text. In this paper, we analyze various training criteria which directly optimize translation quality. These training criteria make use of recently proposed automatic evaluation metrics. We describe a new algorithm for efficient training an unsmoothed error count. We show that significantly better results can often be obtained if the final evaluation criterion is taken directly into account as part of the training procedure.

3,259 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
06 Jul 2002
TL;DR: A framework for statistical machine translation of natural languages based on direct maximum entropy models, which contains the widely used source-channel approach as a special case and shows that a baseline statistical machinetranslation system is significantly improved using this approach.
Abstract: We present a framework for statistical machine translation of natural languages based on direct maximum entropy models, which contains the widely used source-channel approach as a special case. All knowledge sources are treated as feature functions, which depend on the source language sentence, the target language sentence and possible hidden variables. This approach allows a baseline machine translation system to be extended easily by adding new feature functions. We show that a baseline statistical machine translation system is significantly improved using this approach.

1,216 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
03 Oct 2000
TL;DR: It is shown that models with a first-order dependence and a fertility model lead to significantly better results than the simple models IBM-1 or IBM-2, which are not able to go beyond zero-order dependencies.
Abstract: In this paper, we present and compare various single-word based alignment models for statistical machine translation. We discuss the five IBM alignment models, the Hidden-Markov alignment model, smoothing techniques and various modifications. We present different methods to combine alignments. As evaluation criterion we use the quality of the resulting Viterbi alignment compared to a manually produced reference alignment. We show that models with a first-order dependence and a fertility model lead to significantly better results than the simple models IBM-1 or IBM-2, which are not able to go beyond zero-order dependencies.

1,168 citations


Cited by
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Posted Content
TL;DR: This paper proposed two novel model architectures for computing continuous vector representations of words from very large data sets, and the quality of these representations is measured in a word similarity task and the results are compared to the previously best performing techniques based on different types of neural networks.
Abstract: We propose two novel model architectures for computing continuous vector representations of words from very large data sets. The quality of these representations is measured in a word similarity task, and the results are compared to the previously best performing techniques based on different types of neural networks. We observe large improvements in accuracy at much lower computational cost, i.e. it takes less than a day to learn high quality word vectors from a 1.6 billion words data set. Furthermore, we show that these vectors provide state-of-the-art performance on our test set for measuring syntactic and semantic word similarities.

20,077 citations

Proceedings Article
01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: It is conjecture that the use of a fixed-length vector is a bottleneck in improving the performance of this basic encoder-decoder architecture, and it is proposed to extend this by allowing a model to automatically (soft-)search for parts of a source sentence that are relevant to predicting a target word, without having to form these parts as a hard segment explicitly.
Abstract: Neural machine translation is a recently proposed approach to machine translation. Unlike the traditional statistical machine translation, the neural machine translation aims at building a single neural network that can be jointly tuned to maximize the translation performance. The models proposed recently for neural machine translation often belong to a family of encoder-decoders and consists of an encoder that encodes a source sentence into a fixed-length vector from which a decoder generates a translation. In this paper, we conjecture that the use of a fixed-length vector is a bottleneck in improving the performance of this basic encoder-decoder architecture, and propose to extend this by allowing a model to automatically (soft-)search for parts of a source sentence that are relevant to predicting a target word, without having to form these parts as a hard segment explicitly. With this new approach, we achieve a translation performance comparable to the existing state-of-the-art phrase-based system on the task of English-to-French translation. Furthermore, qualitative analysis reveals that the (soft-)alignments found by the model agree well with our intuition.

20,027 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: In this paper, the encoder and decoder of the RNN Encoder-Decoder model are jointly trained to maximize the conditional probability of a target sequence given a source sequence.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel neural network model called RNN Encoder‐ Decoder that consists of two recurrent neural networks (RNN). One RNN encodes a sequence of symbols into a fixedlength vector representation, and the other decodes the representation into another sequence of symbols. The encoder and decoder of the proposed model are jointly trained to maximize the conditional probability of a target sequence given a source sequence. The performance of a statistical machine translation system is empirically found to improve by using the conditional probabilities of phrase pairs computed by the RNN Encoder‐Decoder as an additional feature in the existing log-linear model. Qualitatively, we show that the proposed model learns a semantically and syntactically meaningful representation of linguistic phrases.

19,998 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors propose to use a soft-searching model to find the parts of a source sentence that are relevant to predicting a target word, without having to form these parts as a hard segment explicitly.
Abstract: Neural machine translation is a recently proposed approach to machine translation. Unlike the traditional statistical machine translation, the neural machine translation aims at building a single neural network that can be jointly tuned to maximize the translation performance. The models proposed recently for neural machine translation often belong to a family of encoder-decoders and consists of an encoder that encodes a source sentence into a fixed-length vector from which a decoder generates a translation. In this paper, we conjecture that the use of a fixed-length vector is a bottleneck in improving the performance of this basic encoder-decoder architecture, and propose to extend this by allowing a model to automatically (soft-)search for parts of a source sentence that are relevant to predicting a target word, without having to form these parts as a hard segment explicitly. With this new approach, we achieve a translation performance comparable to the existing state-of-the-art phrase-based system on the task of English-to-French translation. Furthermore, qualitative analysis reveals that the (soft-)alignments found by the model agree well with our intuition.

14,077 citations

Proceedings Article
25 Jul 2004
TL;DR: Four different RouGE measures are introduced: ROUGE-N, ROUge-L, R OUGE-W, and ROUAGE-S included in the Rouge summarization evaluation package and their evaluations.
Abstract: ROUGE stands for Recall-Oriented Understudy for Gisting Evaluation. It includes measures to automatically determine the quality of a summary by comparing it to other (ideal) summaries created by humans. The measures count the number of overlapping units such as n-gram, word sequences, and word pairs between the computer-generated summary to be evaluated and the ideal summaries created by humans. This paper introduces four different ROUGE measures: ROUGE-N, ROUGE-L, ROUGE-W, and ROUGE-S included in the ROUGE summarization evaluation package and their evaluations. Three of them have been used in the Document Understanding Conference (DUC) 2004, a large-scale summarization evaluation sponsored by NIST.

9,293 citations