Other affiliations: Virginia Tech, Metropolitan State University of Denver, University of Alaska Anchorage ...read more
Bio: Fred Barlow is an academic researcher from University of Idaho. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Power module & Fourier transform. The author has an hindex of 19, co-authored 88 publication(s) receiving 1368 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Fred Barlow include Virginia Tech & Metropolitan State University of Denver.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, the capability of SiC power semiconductor devices, in particular JFET and Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs), for application in high-temperature power electronics was evaluated.
Abstract: This paper evaluates the capability of SiC power semiconductor devices, in particular JFET and Schottky barrier diodes (SBD) for application in high-temperature power electronics. SiC JFETs and SBDs were packaged in high temperature packages to measure the dc characteristics of these SiC devices at ambient temperatures ranging from 25degC (room temperature) up to 450degC. The results show that both devices can operate at 450degC, which is impossible for conventional Si devices, at the expense of significant derating. The current capability of the SiC SBD does not change with temperature, but as expected the JFET current decreases with rising temperatures. A 100 V, 25 W dc-dc converter is used as an example of a high-temperature power-electronics circuit because of circuit simplicity. The converter is designed and built in accordance with the static characteristics of the SiC devices measured under extremely high ambient temperatures, and then tested up to an ambient temperature of 400degC. The conduction loss of the SiC JFET increases slightly with increasing temperatures, as predicted from its dc characteristics, but its switching characteristics hardly change. Thus, SiC devices are well suited for operation in harsh temperature environments like aerospace and automotive applications.
TL;DR: In this paper, a fully integrated silicon carbide (SiC)-based six-pack power module is designed and developed for electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle applications, where each switching element is composed of four paralleled SiC junction gate field effect transistors (JFETs) with two antiparallel SiC Schottky barrier diodes.
Abstract: In this paper, a fully integrated silicon carbide (SiC)-based six-pack power module is designed and developed. With 1200-V, 100-A module rating, each switching element is composed of four paralleled SiC junction gate field-effect transistors (JFETs) with two antiparallel SiC Schottky barrier diodes. The stability of the module assembly processes is confirmed with 1000 cycles of -40°C to +200°C thermal shock tests with 1.3°C/s temperature change. The static characteristics of the module are evaluated and the results show 55 mΩ on-state resistance of the phase leg at 200°C junction temperature. For switching performances, the experiments demonstrate that while utilizing a 650-V voltage and 60-A current, the module switching loss decreases as the junction temperature increases up to 150°C. The test setup over a large temperature range is also described. Meanwhile, the shoot-through influenced by the SiC JFET internal capacitance as well as package parasitic inductances are discussed. Additionally, a liquid cooled three-phase inverter with 22.9 cm × 22.4 cm × 7.1 cm volume and 3.53-kg weight, based on this power module, is designed and developed for electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle applications. A conversion efficiency of 98.5% is achieved at 10 kHz switching frequency at 5 kW output power. The inverter is evaluated with coolant temperature up to 95°C successfully.
18 Jun 2006
TL;DR: A novel pulse width modulation strategy to extend the conventional soft-switching operating mode region and its analysis are presented and Experimental results are given in order to validate the theoretical analysis and practical feasibility of the proposed strategy.
Abstract: A switching control strategy to extend the soft-switching operating range of the dual active bridge (DAB) dc-dc converter under the zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) operating mode is proposed. The converter topology consists of two active bridges linked by a high-frequency transformer. One drawback of this strategy is that soft-switching is only possible in a restricted converter operating region. A novel pulse width modulation strategy to extend the conventional soft-switching operating mode region and its analysis are presented in this paper. Experimental results are given in order to validate the theoretical analysis and practical feasibility of the proposed strategy.
17 Mar 2000-Microelectronics Reliability
TL;DR: The concept of Integrated Power Modules (IPMs) was introduced in this article, in which the electronic control circuitry and the high power electronics of the converter are integrated into a single compact standardized module.
Abstract: In recent years, there has been an explosion in demand for smaller and lighter, more efficient, and less expensive power electronic supplies and converters. There are a number of reasons for this recent necessity, ranging from the need for smaller and cheaper power converters for consumer electronics (such as laptop computers and cellular phones) to the need for highly reliable power electronics for such items as satellite and military craft power systems, which are required to be highly efficient, light in weight, smaller in volume, and low cost. This paper discusses the concept of Integrated Power Modules (IPMs), in which the electronic control circuitry and the high power electronics of the converter are integrated into a single compact standardized module. The advantages and disadvantages of such an approach will be discussed in reference to the current industry standard for power electronics design and packaging. The researchers will then take the readers through the IPM design, including basic circuit topology layout, module fabrication processes, and finally thermal considerations.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used a stack and tack machine with a three-camera vision system and an adjustable precision stage to achieve less than 25/spl mu/m layer-to-layer misalignment in both X and Y directions across the substrate.
Abstract: Advances in screen printing and photoimageable paste technologies have allowed low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) circuit densities to continue to increase; however, the size of vias for Z-axis interconnections in multilayer LTCC substrates have been a limiting process constraint. In order to effectively exploit the 50-100-/spl mu/m line/spacing capabilities of advanced screen printing and photoimageable techniques, microvia technologies need to achieve 100 /spl mu/m and under in diameter. Three main steps in fabrication of microvias include via formation, via metallization or via fill, and layer-to-layer alignment. The challenges associated with the processing and equipment for the fabrication of microvias are addressed in this paper. Microvias down to 50 /spl mu/m in diameter with spacings as small as 50 /spl mu/m are achieved in 50-254-/spl mu/m-thick LTCC tape layers through the use of a mechanical punching system, whereas the minimum size of 75-/spl mu/m via/spacing is obtained using a pulse laser-drilling system in the LTCC tape layers with the same thicknesses as those for the punching test. The quality of punched microvias and laser-drilled microvias will be presented as well. Layer-to-layer alignment is crucial to the connection of vias in adjacent LTCC tape layers. Through a stack and tack machine with a three-camera vision system and an adjustable precision stage, less than 25-/spl mu/m layer-to-layer misalignment is achieved across a 114.3/spl times/114.3 mm (4.5/spl times/4.5 in) design area. In a six-layer LTCC test substrate (152/spl times/152/spl times/0.762 mm), microvias of 50, 75, and 100 /spl mu/m in diameter are successfully fabricated without the use of via catch pads. The cross section of fired microvias filled with silver conductor pastes at various locations of this substrate demonstrates a minor layer-to-layer misalignment in both X and Y directions across the substrate.
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …
TL;DR: In this article, a review of recent progresses in the development of SiC- and GaN-based power semiconductor devices together with an overall view of the state of the art of this new device generation is presented.
Abstract: Wide bandgap semiconductors show superior material properties enabling potential power device operation at higher temperatures, voltages, and switching speeds than current Si technology. As a result, a new generation of power devices is being developed for power converter applications in which traditional Si power devices show limited operation. The use of these new power semiconductor devices will allow both an important improvement in the performance of existing power converters and the development of new power converters, accounting for an increase in the efficiency of the electric energy transformations and a more rational use of the electric energy. At present, SiC and GaN are the more promising semiconductor materials for these new power devices as a consequence of their outstanding properties, commercial availability of starting material, and maturity of their technological processes. This paper presents a review of recent progresses in the development of SiC- and GaN-based power semiconductor devices together with an overall view of the state of the art of this new device generation.
TL;DR: In this paper, the dual-active-bridge (DAB) isolated bidirectional dc-dc converter (IBDC) serves as the core circuit of high frequency-link (HFL) power conversion systems.
Abstract: High-frequency-link (HFL) power conversion systems (PCSs) are attracting more and more attentions in academia and industry for high power density, reduced weight, and low noise without compromising efficiency, cost, and reliability. In HFL PCSs, dual-active-bridge (DAB) isolated bidirectional dc-dc converter (IBDC) serves as the core circuit. This paper gives an overview of DAB-IBDC for HFL PCSs. First, the research necessity and development history are introduced. Second, the research subjects about basic characterization, control strategy, soft-switching solution and variant, as well as hardware design and optimization are reviewed and analyzed. On this basis, several typical application schemes of DAB-IBDC for HPL PCSs are presented in a worldwide scope. Finally, design recommendations and future trends are presented. As the core circuit of HFL PCSs, DAB-IBDC has wide prospects. The large-scale practical application of DAB-IBDC for HFL PCSs is expected with the recent advances in solid-state semiconductors, magnetic and capacitive materials, and microelectronic technologies.
TL;DR: In this paper, a dual-phase-shift (DPS) control strategy for a dual active-bridge isolated bidirectional DC-DC converter is proposed, which consists of a phase shift between the primary and secondary voltages of the isolation transformer, and a phase shifting between the gate signals of the diagonal switches of each H-bridge.
Abstract: This paper proposes a novel dual-phase-shift (DPS) control strategy for a dual-active-bridge isolated bidirectional DC-DC converter. The proposed DPS control consists of a phase shift between the primary and secondary voltages of the isolation transformer, and a phase shift between the gate signals of the diagonal switches of each H-bridge. Simulation on a 600-V/5-kW prototype shows that the DPS control has excellent dynamic and static performance compared to the traditional phase-shift control (single phase shift). In this paper, the concept of ldquoreactive powerrdquo is defined, and the corresponding equations are derived for isolated bidirectional DC-DC converters. It is shown that the reactive power in traditional phase-shift control is inherent, and is the main factor contributing to large peak current and large system loss. The DPS control can eliminate reactive power in isolated bidirectional DC-DC converters. In addition, the DPS control can decrease the peak inrush current and steady-state current, improve system efficiency, increase system power capability (by 33%), and minimize the output capacitance as compared to the traditional phase-shift control. The soft-switching range and the influence of short-time-scale factors, such as deadband and system-level safe operation area, are also discussed in detail. Under certain operation conditions, deadband compensation can be implemented easily in the DPS control without a current sensor.
01 Jan 2013-Electroanalysis
TL;DR: This article reviews recent advances and developments in the field of wearable sensors with emphasis on a subclass of these devices that are able to perform highly-sensitive electrochemical analysis, and identifies potential implications of this new sensing paradigm in the healthcare, fitness, security, and environmental monitoring domains.
Abstract: This article reviews recent advances and developments in the field of wearable sensors with emphasis on a subclass of these devices that are able to perform highly-sensitive electrochemical analysis Recent insights into novel fabrication methodologies and electrochemical techniques have resulted in the demonstration of chemical sensors able to augment conventional physical measurements (ie heart rate, EEG, ECG, etc), thereby providing added dimensions of rich, analytical information to the wearer in a timely manner Wearable electrochemical sensors have been integrated onto both textile materials and directly on the epidermis for various monitoring applications owing to their unique ability to process chemical analytes in a non-invasive and non-obtrusive fashion In this manner, multi-analyte detection can easily be performed, in real time, in order to ascertain the overall physiological health of the wearer or to identify potential offenders in their environment Of profound importance is the development of an understanding of the impact of mechanical strain on textile- and epidermal (tattoo)-based sensors and their failure mechanisms as well as the compatibility of the substrate employed in the fabrication process We conclude this review with a retrospective outlook of the field and identify potential implications of this new sensing paradigm in the healthcare, fitness, security, and environmental monitoring domains With continued innovation and detailed attention to core challenges, it is expected that wearable electrochemical sensors will play a pivotal role in the emergent body sensor networks arena