Bio: Frederic Cegla is an academic researcher from Imperial College London. The author has contributed to research in topics: Ultrasonic sensor & Electromagnetic acoustic transducer. The author has an hindex of 18, co-authored 84 publications receiving 1148 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A finite element model of the elementary transducers has been developed and shows that magnetostrictive EMATs directly applied on mild steel plates have comparatively poor performance that is dependent on the precise magneto-mechanical properties of the test object.
Abstract: Guided wave inspection has proven to be a very effective method for the rapid inspection of large structures. The fundamental shear horizontal (SH) wave mode in plates and the torsional mode in pipe-like structures are especially useful because of their non-dispersive character. Guided waves can be generated by either piezoelectric transducers or electro- magnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs), and EMATs can be based on either the Lorentz force or magnetostriction. Several EMAT configurations can be used to produce SH waves, the most common being Lorentz-force periodic permanent magnet and magnetostrictive EMATs, the latter being directly applied on the sample or with a bonded strip of highly magnetostrictive material on the plate. This paper compares the performance of these solutions on steel structures. To quantitatively assess the wave amplitude produced by different probes, a finite element model of the elementary transducers has been developed. The results of the model are experimentally validated and the simulations are further used to study the dependence of ultrasonic wave amplitude on key design parameters. The analysis shows that magnetostrictive EMATs directly applied on mild steel plates have comparatively poor performance that is dependent on the precise magneto-mechanical properties of the test object. Periodic permanent magnet EMATs generate intermediate wave amplitudes and are noncontact and insensitive to the variations in properties seen across typical steels. Large signal amplitudes can be achieved with magnetostrictive EMATs with a layer of highly magnetostrictive material attached between the transducer and the plate, but this compromises the noncontact nature of the transducer.
TL;DR: The design of a high-temperature ultrasonic thickness gauge that bypasses problems of depolarization and differential thermal expansion of the different materials within a transducer causes them to fail is described.
Abstract: Conventional ultrasonic transducers cannot withstand high temperatures for two main reasons: the piezoelectric elements within them depolarize, and differential thermal expansion of the different materials within a transducer causes them to fail. In this paper, the design of a high-temperature ultrasonic thickness gauge that bypasses these problems is described. The system uses a waveguide to isolate the vulnerable transducer and piezoelectric elements from the high-temperature measurement zone. Use of thin and long waveguides of rectangular cross section allows large temperature gradients to be sustained over short distances without the need for additional cooling equipment. The main problems that had to be addressed were the transmission and reception of ultrasonic waves into and from the testpiece that the waveguides are coupled to, and optimization of the wave propagation along the waveguide itself. It was found that anti-plane shear loading performs best at transmitting and receiving from the surface of a component that is to be inspected. Therefore, a nondispersive guided wave mode in large-aspect-ratio rectangular strips was employed to transmit the anti-plane shear loading from the transducer to the measurement zone. Different joining methods to attach the waveguides to the component were investigated and experiments showed that clamping the waveguides to the component surface gave the best results. The thickness of different plate samples was consistently measured to within less than 0.1 mm. Performance at high temperatures was tested in a furnace at 730°C for 4 weeks without signal degradation. Thicknesses in the range of 3 to 25 mm could be monitored using Hanning windowed tonebursts with 2 MHz center frequency.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an initial study of the feasibility of using measurements of the velocity and attenuation of the quasi-Scholte mode on a plate to obtain the longitudinal velocities and attenuations of an embedding medium.
Abstract: In the food industry and other industries, rheological measurements and determination of particle sizes in suspensions and emulsions is of great importance for process and quality control. Current test cell based ultrasonic methods exist but are often inconvenient. An attractive alternative could be to insert a simple measurement “dipstick” into the fluid; this paper presents an initial study of the feasibility of using measurements of the velocity and attenuation of the quasi-Scholte mode on a plate to obtain the longitudinal velocity and attenuation of an embedding medium. The attenuation of the quasi-Scholte mode is caused by two mechanisms: shear leakage and attenuation due to the bulk longitudinal attenuation of the embedding material. In a calibration test the bulk longitudinal velocity and viscosity of glycerol were determined experimentally. Measurements agreed well with results from conventional methods and literature data. Quantitative results and an independent validation for honey, a very visc...
TL;DR: In this paper, the performance of bulk shear wave EMATs on a wide range of steels is presented, showing the typical range of physical properties encountered in practice and the main conclusion is that the Lorentz force is the dominant transduction effect, regardless of the magnitude and direction of the bias magnetic field.
Abstract: Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) are an attractive alternative to standard piezoelectric probes in a number of applications thanks to their contactless nature. EMATs do not require any couplant liquid and are able to generate a wide range of wave-modes; however these positive features are partly counterbalanced by a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio and by the dependence of EMAT performance on the material properties of the test object. A wide variety of steel materials is employed in many industrial applications, so it is important to assess the material-dependent behaviour of EMATs when used in the inspection of different types of steel. Experimental data showing the performance of bulk shear wave EMATs on a wide range of steels is presented, showing the typical range of physical properties encountered in practice. A previously validated Finite Element model, including the main transduction mechanisms, the Lorentz force and magnetostriction, is used to evaluate the experimental data. The main conclusion is that the Lorentz force is the dominant transduction effect, regardless of the magnitude and direction of the bias magnetic field. Differently from magnetostriction, the Lorentz force is not significantly sensitive to the typical range of physical properties of steels, as a consequence the same EMAT sensor can be used on different grades of ferritic steel.
TL;DR: For the first time an absolute validation of a magnetostrictive EMAT model has been achieved; the model is able to successfully predict the wave amplitude dependence on significant parameters: the static bias field, the driving current amplitude, and the excitation frequency.
Abstract: The noncontact nature of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) offers a series of advantages over traditional piezoelectric transducers, but these features are counter-balanced by their relatively low signal-to-noise ratio and their strong dependence on material properties such as electric conductivity, magnetic permeability, and magnetostriction. The implication is that full exploitation of EMATs needs detailed modeling of their operation. A finite element model, accounting for the main transduction mechanisms, has been developed to allow the optimization of the transducers. Magnetostriction is included and described through an analogy with piezoelectricity. The model is used to predict the performance of a simple EMAT: a single current-carrying wire, parallel to a bias magnetic field generating shear horizontal waves in a nickel plate close to it. The results are validated against experiments. The model is able to successfully predict the wave amplitude dependence on significant parameters: the static bias field, the driving current amplitude, and the excitation frequency. The comparison does not employ any arbitrary adjustable parameter; for the first time an absolute validation of a magnetostrictive EMAT model has been achieved. The results are satisfactory: the discrepancy between the numerical predictions and the measured values of wave amplitude per unit current is less than 20% over a 200 kHz frequency range. The study has also shown that magnetostrictive EMAT sensitivity is not only a function of the magnetostrictive properties, because the magnetic permeability also plays a significant role in the transduction mechanism, partly counterbalancing the magnetostrictive effects.
01 Sep 2010
••01 Dec 1976
TL;DR: To model material failure and removal, a finite element structure code is used and enables simulation of full fluid-structure interaction and investigation of the effects of various parameters.
Abstract: Surface cleaning using cavitation bubble dynamics is investigated numerically through modeling of bubble dynamics, dirt particle motion, and fluid material interaction. Three fluid dynamics models; a potential flow model, a viscous model, and a compressible model, are used to describe the flow field generated by the bubble all showing the strong effects bubble explosive growth and collapse have on a dirt particle and on a layer of material to remove. Bubble deformation and reentrant jet formation are seen to be responsible for generating concentrated pressures, shear, and lift forces on the dirt particle and high impulsive loads on a layer of material to remove. Bubble explosive growth is also an important mechanism for removal of dirt particles, since strong suction forces in addition to shear are generated around the explosively growing bubble and can exert strong forces lifting the particles from the surface to clean and sucking them toward the bubble. To model material failure and removal, a finite element structure code is used and enables simulation of full fluid–structure interaction and investigation of the effects of various parameters. High impulsive pressures are generated during bubble collapse due to the impact of the bubble reentrant jet on the material surface and the subsequent collapse of the resulting toroidal bubble. Pits and material removal develop on the material surface when the impulsive pressure is large enough to result in high equivalent stresses exceeding the material yield stress or its ultimate strain. Cleaning depends on parameters such as the relative size between the bubble at its maximum volume and the particle size, the bubble standoff distance from the particle and from the material wall, and the excitation pressure field driving the bubble dynamics. These effects are discussed in this contribution.
TL;DR: Given better focused research and development considering the key factors identified here, structural health monitoring has the potential to follow the path of rotating machine condition monitoring and become a widely deployed technology.
Abstract: There has been a large volume of research on structural health monitoring since the 1970s but this research effort has yielded relatively few routine industrial applications. Structural health monitoring can include applications on very different structures with very different requirements; this article splits the subject into four broad categories: rotating machine condition monitoring, global monitoring of large structures (structural identification), large area monitoring where the area covered is part of a larger structure, and local monitoring. The capabilities and potential applications of techniques in each category are discussed. Condition monitoring of rotating machine components is very different to the other categories since it is not strictly concerned with structural health. However, it is often linked with structural health monitoring and is a relatively mature field with many routine applications, so useful lessons can be read across to mainstream structural health monitoring where there ar...