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Fredrick E. Vars

Bio: Fredrick E. Vars is an academic researcher from University of Alabama. The author has contributed to research in topics: Gun control & Supreme court. The author has an hindex of 8, co-authored 37 publications receiving 291 citations. Previous affiliations of Fredrick E. Vars include Louisiana State University & University of California, Berkeley.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the flow of citations over time and the determinants of citations more generally and found that articles with shorter titles, fewer footnotes per page, and without equations have significantly more citations than other articles.
Abstract: Studies of citations to law review articles tend to suffer from two related shortcomings: (1) a failure to adjust raw citation counts for opportunities to be cited; and (2) an exclusive focus on the most-cited articles. This article addresses both of these shortcomings for pieces published from 1980 to 1995 in Harvard Law Review, Stanford Law Review, and The Yale Law Journal. First, we rank articles by citations in other law reviews using regression analysis to correct for time since publication, journal, and subject area. Next, we examine the flow of citations over time and the determinants of citations more generally. To summarize a few of our results: citations per year peak at four years after publication and an article receives half of its expected total life-time citations after 4.6 years; appearing first in an issue is a significant advantage; international law articles receive fewer citations; jurisprudence articles are cited more often; articles by young, female, or minority authors are more heavily cited. Articles with shorter titles, fewer footnotes per page, and without equations have significantly more citations than other articles. Total citations generally increase with an article?s length, but citations per published page peak at 53 pages. Finally, we note a pervasive identification problem in inferring a cause for these our results. Among the possible explanations for observing a positive correlation between a characteristic and citations are: higher quality for this type of article, editorial bias against this type of article (that is, a higher quality cut-off for acceptance), or bias in favor of citation by citing authors. Given this problem (and others), we counsel caution in ascribing meaning to our results.

76 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the determinants of citations to pieces published from 1980 to 1995 in Harvard Law Review, Stanford Law Review and The Yale Law Journal were analyzed, and articles with shorter titles, fewer footnotes per page, and without equations had significantly more citations than other articles.
Abstract: This article analyzes the determinants of citations to pieces published from 1980 to 1995 in Harvard Law Review, Stanford Law Review, and The Yale Law Journal. We also rank articles by number of citations using regressions controlling for time since publication, journal, and subject area. To summarize a few of our results: citations per year peak at 4 years after publication, and an article receives half of its expected total lifetime citations after 4.6 years; appearing first in an issue is a significant advantage; international law articles receive fewer citations; jurisprudence articles are cited more often; articles by young, female, or minority authors are more heavily cited. Articles with shorter titles, fewer footnotes per page, and without equations have significantly more citations than other articles. Total citations generally increase with an article's length, but citations per published page peak at 53 pages.

66 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: Ayres et al. as discussed by the authors found that African-American passengers tend to tip less than white passengers, and that black passengers are 3.7 times more likely than whites to leave no tip.
Abstract: We collected data on over 1000 taxicab rides in New Haven, CT in 2001. After controlling for a host of other variables, we find two potential racial disparities in tipping: (1) African-American cab drivers were tipped approximately one-third less than white cab drivers; and (2) African-American passengers tipped approximately one-half the amount of white passengers (African-American passengers are 3.7 times more likely than white passengers to leave no tip). Many studies have documented seller discrimination against consumers, but this study tests and finds that consumers discriminate based on the seller’s race. African-American passengers also participated in the racial discrimination. While African-American passengers generally tipped less, they also tipped black drivers approximately one-third less than they tipped white drivers. The finding that African-American passengers tend to tip less may not be robust to including better controls for passenger social class. But it is still possible to test for the racialized inference that cab drivers (who also could not directly observe passenger income) might make. Regressions suggest that a “rational” statistical discriminator would expect African Americans to tip 56.5% less than white passengers. These findings suggest that government-mandated tipping (via a “tip included” decal) might reduce two different types of disparate treatment. First, mandated tipping would directly reduce the passenger discrimination against black drivers documented in this study. Second, mandated tipping might indirectly reduce the widely-documented tendency of drivers to refuse to pick up black passengers. *Ian Ayres is the Townsend Professor of Law at Yale Law School. Fredrick Vars is an associate at the Chicago law firm of Miller Shakman & Hamilton. Nasser Zakariya is a fellow at the Yale Law School Center for the Study of Corporate Law. Please send comments to: ian.ayres@yale.edu. This article is dedicated to Underhill Moore and Suzanne Perry. Underhill Moore took to the streets of New Haven during the 1930s to see whether people observed parking meter regulations. See John Henry Schlegel, American Legal Realism and Empirical Social Science: The Singular Case of Underhill Moore, 29 BUFF. L. REV. 195 (1980). Nearly seventy years later, Perry conducted a pilot study of taxi and pizza delivery tipping that was the inspiration and foundation for the present effort. The authors thank Aditi Bagchi, Caroline Harada, Lee Harris, and Ian Slotin for their heroic efforts as auditors. Jennifer Brown, Emma Coleman, Neil Katyal, and seminar participants at Georgetown Law School provided helpful comments.

60 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the effect of firearm purchase delays on firearm-related homicides and suicides and found that the existence of a purchase delay reduces firearm related suicides by around 3 percent, with no statistical evidence of a substitution towards non-firearm suicides.
Abstract: The effects of policies aimed to restrict firearm ownership and usage is a heavily debated topic in modern social science research. While much of the debate has focused on right-to-carry laws, less research has focused on other policies which affect firearm ownership and use, in particular statutory delays between the purchase and delivery of a firearm. In addition to the 1994 Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, which placed a mandatory five-day wait period between the purchase and delivery of a handgun, many states enacted similar policies before and after Brady’s effective years. We exploit within-state variation across time in both the existence of a purchase delay and length of the delay to examine the effect of purchase delays on firearm-related homicides and suicides. We find that the existence of a purchase delay reduces firearm related suicides by around 3 percent, with no statistical evidence of a substitution towards non-firearm suicides. We find no evidence that purchase delays are associated with statistically significant changes in homicide rates.

22 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors exploit within-state variation across time in both the existence and length of statutory delays (both explicit wait periods and delays created by licensing requirements) between the purchase and delivery of a firearm to examine the effect of purchase delays on homicides and suicides.
Abstract: We exploit within-state variation across time in both the existence and length of statutory delays—both explicit wait periods and delays created by licensing requirements—between the purchase and delivery of a firearm to examine the effect of purchase delays on homicides and suicides. We find that the existence of a purchase delay reduces firearm related suicides by between 2 to 5 percent with no statistically significant increase in non-firearm suicides. Purchase delays are not associated with statistically significant changes in homicide rates. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The general tendency of the results of the empirical studies makes it clear that citing behavior is not motivated solely by the wish to acknowledge intellectual and cognitive influences of colleague scientists, since the individual studies reveal also other, in part non‐scientific, factors that play a part in the decision to cite.
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a narrative review of studies on the citing behavior of scientists, covering mainly research published in the last 15 years. Based on the results of these studies, the paper seeks to answer the question of the extent to which scientists are motivated to cite a publication not only to acknowledge intellectual and cognitive influences of scientific peers, but also for other, possibly non‐scientific, reasons.Design/methodology/approach – The review covers research published from the early 1960s up to mid‐2005 (approximately 30 studies on citing behavior‐reporting results in about 40 publications).Findings – The general tendency of the results of the empirical studies makes it clear that citing behavior is not motivated solely by the wish to acknowledge intellectual and cognitive influences of colleague scientists, since the individual studies reveal also other, in part non‐scientific, factors that play a part in the decision to cite. However, the results of t...

1,182 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper found that applicants with distinctively African-American names are 16% less likely to be accepted relative to identical hosts with White names on the same platform. But, their results suggest that only a subset of hosts discriminate.
Abstract: In an experiment on Airbnb, we find that applications from guests with distinctively African-American names are 16% less likely to be accepted relative to identical guests with distinctively White names. Discrimination occurs among landlords of all sizes, including small landlords sharing the property and larger landlords with multiple properties. It is most pronounced among hosts who have never had an African-American guest, suggesting only a subset of hosts discriminate. While rental markets have achieved significant reductions in discrimination in recent decades, our results suggest that Airbnb’s current design choices facilitate discrimination and raise the possibility of erasing some of these civil rights gains.

581 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Probably some factors such as the quality of the paper, journal impact factor, number of authors, visibility and international cooperation are stronger predictors for citations, than authors’ gender, age and race; characteristics of results and discussion and so on.
Abstract: The majority of academic papers are scarcely cited while a few others are highly cited. A large number of studies indicate that there are many factors influencing the number of citations. An actual review is missing that provides a comprehensive review of the factors predicting the frequency of citations. In this review, we performed a search in WoS, Scopus, PubMed and Medline to retrieve relevant papers. In overall, 2087 papers were retrieved among which 198 relevant papers were included in the study. Three general categories with twenty eight factors were identified to be related to the number of citations: Category one: "paper related factors": quality of paper; novelty and interest of subject; characteristics of fields and study topics; methodology; document type; study design; characteristics of results and discussion; use of figures and appendix in papers; characteristics of the titles and abstracts; characteristics of references; length of paper; age of paper; early citation and speed of citation; accessibility and visibility of papers. Category two: "journal related factors": journal impact factor; language of journal; scope of journal; form of publication. Category three: "author(s) related factors": number of authors; author's reputation; author's academic rank; self-citations; international and national collaboration of authors; authors' country; gender, age and race of authors; author's productivity; organizational features; and funding. Probably some factors such as the quality of the paper, journal impact factor, number of authors, visibility and international cooperation are stronger predictors for citations, than authors' gender, age and race; characteristics of results and discussion and so on.

477 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors found that applicants with distinctively African American names are 16 percent less likely to be accepted relative to identical hosts with identical names. But they did not find that African Americans with different names were more likely to report negative experiences with the service.
Abstract: In an experiment on Airbnb, we find that applications from guests with distinctively African American names are 16 percent less likely to be accepted relative to identical guests with dist...

420 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Standards of good practice for analyzing bibliometric data and presenting and interpreting the results are presented.
Abstract: With the ready accessibility of bibliometric data and the availability of ready-to-use tools for generating bibliometric indicators for evaluation purposes, there is the danger of inappropri- ate use. Here we present standards of good practice for analyzing bibliometric data and presenting and interpreting the results. Comparisons drawn between research groups as to research perfor- mance are valid only if (1) the scientific impact of the research groups or their publications are looked at by using box plots, Lorenz curves, and Gini coefficients to represent distribution characteristics of data (in other words, going beyond the usual arithmetic mean value), (2) different reference stan- dards are used to assess the impact of research groups, and the appropriateness of the reference stan- dards undergoes critical examination, and (3) statistical analyses comparing citation counts take into consideration that citations are a function of many influencing factors besides scientific quality.

345 citations