G. C. van der Weyden
Bio: G. C. van der Weyden is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Estrous cycle & Pregnancy. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publication(s) receiving 68 citation(s).
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: An important consideration in the examination of the female reproductive tract is that its condition is very dependent on the stage of reproductive function (estrous cycle, pregnancy, parturition, postpartum period).
Abstract: An important consideration in the examination of the female reproductive tract is that its condition, as well as the animal’s behavior, is very dependent on the stage of reproductive function (estrous cycle, pregnancy, parturition, postpartum period). Also, considerable change may have been brought about by ovariohysterectomy
TL;DR: Until there is enough information on the predictive value of mechanism-based toxicology for risk assessment, this approach should be used in conjunction with and validated by the traditional in vivo long-term bioassays, combined with comparative in vitro systems.
Abstract: Breast cancer, the most frequent spontaneous malignancy diagnosed in women in the western world, is continuously increasing in incidence in industrialized nations. Although breast cancer develops in women as the result of a combination of external and endogenous factors such as exposure to ionizing radiation, diet, socioeconomic status, and endocrinologic, familial, or genetic factors, no specific etiologic agent(s) or the mechanisms responsible of the disease has been identified as yet. Thus, experimental models that exhibit the same complex interactions are needed for testing various mechanisms and for assessing the carcinogenic potential of given chemicals. Rodent mammary carcinomas represent such a model to a great extent because, in these species, mammary cancer is a multistep complex process that can be induced by either chemicals, radiation, viruses, or genetic factors. Long-term studies in rodent models have been particularly useful for dissecting the initiation, promotion, and progression steps of carcinogenesis. The susceptibility of the rodent mammary gland to develop neoplasms has made this organ a unique target for testing the carcinogenic potential of specific genotoxic chemicals and environmental agents. Mammary tumors induced by indirect- or direct-acting carcinogens such as 7, 12-dimethlbenz(a)anthracene or N-methyl-N-nitrosourea are, in general, hormone dependent adenocarcinomas whose incidence, number of tumors per animal, tumor latency, and tumor type are influenced by the age, reproductive history, and endocarinologic milieu of the host at the time of carcinogen exposure. Rodent models are informative in the absence of human data. They have provided valuable information on the dose and route of administration to be used and optimal host conditions for eliciting maximal tumorigenic response. Studies of the influence of normal gland development on the pathogenesis of chemically induced mammary carcinomas have clarified the role of differentiation in cancer initiation. Comparative studies with the development of the human breast and the pathogenesis of breast cancer have contributed to validate rodent-to-human extrapolations. However, it has not been definitively established what type of information is necessary for human risk assessment, whether currently toxicity testing methodologies are sufficient for fulfilling those needs, or whether treatment-induced tumorigenic responses in rodents are predictive of potential human risk. An alternative to the traditional bioassays are mechanism-based toxicology and molecular and cellular approaches, combined with comparative in vitro systems. These approaches might allow the rapid screen of chemicals for setting priorities for further studies to determine the dose-response relationship for chemical effects at low doses, to assess effects other than mutagenesis and/or tumorigenesis, or to establish qualitative and quantitative relationships of biomarkers to toxic effects. Until there is enough information on the predictive value of mechanism-based toxicology for risk assessment, this approach should be used in conjunction with and validated by the traditional in vivo long-term bioassays.
01 Mar 2002-Florida Entomologist
TL;DR: There is considerable scope for improving the efficiency of medfly SIT, an indispensable requirement for increased involvement of the private sector in any future application.
Abstract: The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is amongst the most non-disruptive pest control methods. Unlike some other biologically-based methods it is species specific, does not release exotic agents into new environments and does not even introduce new genetic material into existing populations as the released organisms are not self-replicating. However, the SIT is only effective when integrated on an areawide basis, addressing the total population of the pest, irrespective of its distribution. There has been considerable progress in the development and integrated application of the SIT against the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, as reflected by operational programs for prevention, suppression and eradication of this pest. There is however, considerable scope for improving the efficiency of medfly SIT, an indispensable requirement for increased involvement of the private sector in any future application. One way to achieve this has been the development of genetic sexing strains, making it possible to release only sterile males. Another is improving sterile male performance through a better understanding of the sexual behavior of this insect. Unlike other insects for which the SIT has been successfully applied, medfly has a complex lek-based mating system in which the females exert the mate choice selecting among aggregated and displaying wild and sterile males. With the objective of developing a better understanding of medfly mating behavior, an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project was carried out from 1994 to 1999. Some of the resulting work conducted during this period with the participation of research teams from ten countries is reported in this issue.
••01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a 188.8.131.52-approximation algorithm for each node. And they evaluated it on 3.5.3 nodes.
TL;DR: Female G. bimaculatus may control the degree of sperm competition as a mechanism of mate choice by accepting large quantities of sperm from chosen males and determining the paternity of their offspring by diluting out the sperm stored from previous matings.
Abstract: While traditionally viewed as an extension of intermale competition, mechanisms of sperm competition may be used by multiply mating females for mate choice. In the field cricket G. bimaculatus sperm were shown to mix in the spermatheca. The proportion of offspring sired by the second male increased with spermatophore attachment duration and, therefore, the number of sperm transferred. There was no second male advantage for single matings after an initial double mating. However, the proportion ofoffspring sired by the second male increased in proportion to the number of times he mated such that second males mating three times after an initial double mating had the advantage at fertilization. The data suggested that sperm were utilized in proportion to their numerical representation in the spermatheca. The mechanism of sperm precedence may, therefore, be one of sperm dilution. Female G. bimaculatus may control the degree of sperm competition as a mechanism of mate choice. By accepting large quantities of sperm from chosen males they may determine the paternity of their offspring by diluting out the sperm stored from previous matings.
01 Sep 2013-Molecular Human Reproduction
TL;DR: The ability of neonatal progestin treatment in sheep and mice to produce infertility suggests that an approach of this kind may provide a contraceptive strategy with application in other species, and work is underway to determine whether neonatal PROGestin or other steroid hormone treatments might be a viable contraceptive approach in this species.
Abstract: Development of uterine glands (adenogenesis) in mammals typically begins during the early post-natal period and involves budding of nascent glands from the luminal epithelium and extensive cell proliferation in these structures as they grow into the surrounding stroma, elongate and mature. Uterine glands are essential for pregnancy, as demonstrated by the infertility that results from inhibiting the development of these glands through gene mutation or epigenetic strategies. Several genes, including forkhead box A2, beta-catenin and members of the Wnt and Hox gene families, are implicated in uterine gland development. Progestins inhibit uterine epithelial proliferation, and this has been employed as a strategy to develop a model in which progestin treatment of ewes for 8 weeks from birth produces infertile adults lacking uterine glands. More recently, mouse models have been developed in which neonatal progestin treatment was used to permanently inhibit adenogenesis and adult fertility. These studies revealed a narrow and well-defined window in which progestin treatments induced permanent infertility by impairing neonatal gland development and establishing endometrial changes that result in implantation defects. These model systems are being utilized to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying uterine adenogenesis and endometrial function. The ability of neonatal progestin treatment in sheep and mice to produce infertility suggests that an approach of this kind may provide a contraceptive strategy with application in other species. Recent studies have defined the temporal patterns of adenogenesis in uteri of neonatal and juvenile dogs and work is underway to determine whether neonatal progestin or other steroid hormone treatments might be a viable contraceptive approach in this species.