G. Ranga Rao
Bio: G. Ranga Rao is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Madras. The author has contributed to research in topics: Cyclic voltammetry & Oxide. The author has an hindex of 40, co-authored 125 publications receiving 5729 citations. Previous affiliations of G. Ranga Rao include Indian Institute of Science & Indian Institutes of Technology.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, an ultralayered Co3O4 superstructures with high porosity have been synthesized by a facile homogeneous precipitation process under hydrothermal conditions.
Abstract: Ultralayered Co3O4 structures with high porosity have been synthesized by a facile homogeneous precipitation process under hydrothermal conditions. The superstructures consist of well-arranged micrometer length rectangular 2D flakes with high specific surface area, pore volume, and uniform pore size distribution. The electrochemical measurements demonstrate that charge storage occurs in ultralayered Co3O4 due to reversible redox reactions. The charge–discharge study shows that the material is capable of delivering very high specific capacitance of 548 F g–1 at a current density of 8 A g–1 and retains 66% of capacitance at 32 A g–1. The charge–discharge stability measurements show excellent specific capacitance retention capability, ca. 98.5% after 2000 continuous charge–discharge cycles at high current density of 16 A g–1. The exceptional cyclic, structural, and electrochemical stability at higher current rate with ∼100% Coulombic efficiency, and very low ESR value from impedance measurements promise good...
TL;DR: Broadly, this study reveals that microwave-mediated synthesis approach is significantly a better strategy for the synthesis of porous NiO suitable to electrochemical supercapacitor applications.
Abstract: Synthetic methods greatly control the structural and functional characteristics of the materials. In this article, porous NiO samples were prepared in conventional-reflux and microwave assisted heating method under homogeneous precipitation conditions. The NiO samples synthesized in conventional reflux method showed flakelike morphology, whereas the sample synthesized in microwave methods showed hierarchical porous ball like surface morphology with uniform ripple-shaped pores. The NiO samples characterized using BET method were found to bear characteristic meso- and macroporosity due to differently crystallized Ni(OH)(2) precursors under various heating conditions. Thermogravimety analysis showed morphology dependent decomposition of Ni(OH)(2) precursors. The microwave synthesized porous NiO sample with unique morphology and pore size distribution showed significantly improved charge storage and electrochemical stability than the flaky NiO sample synthesized by employing conventional reflux method. The cyclic voltammetry measurements on microwave synthesized NiO sample showed considerably high capacitance and better electrochemical reversibility. The charge-discharge measurements made at a discharge current of 2 A/g showed higher rate specific capacitance (370 F/g) for the NiO sample synthesized by microwave method than the sample synthesized by reflux method (101 F/g). The impedance study illustrates lower electronic and ionic resistance of rippled-shaped porous NiO due to its superior surface properties for enhanced electrode-electrolyte contact during the Faradaic redox reactions. It has been further established from the Ragone plot that the microwave synthesized NiO sample shows higher energy and power densities than the reflux synthesized NiO sample. Broadly, this study reveals that microwave-mediated synthesis approach is significantly a better strategy for the synthesis of porous NiO suitable to electrochemical supercapacitor applications.
TL;DR: The surface morphology and porosity of NiO are strongly influenced by the anions in the precursor salts, and in turn affect significantly the pseudocapacitance behavior and the power performance of Ni O powders.
Abstract: Three nano-porous NiO samples with high specific surface area were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method under homogeneous precipitation conditions using CTAB as a template and urea as the hydrolysis controlling agent. This study was done to determine the effect of different anions (acetate, nitrate and chloride) present in the precursor salts on the morphology and pseudocapacitance behavior of NiO. The samples were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) isotherm and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The final NiO samples showed different hierarchical surface morphologies and their effect on the electrochemical pseudocapacitance behavior was carefully studied by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge cycles (chronopotentiometry) and impedance spectroscopic techniques. The specific capacitance of NiO sample synthesized by NO3− ion intercalation showed higher surface area, intermediate porosity and a novel pine-cone morphology with nano-wire surface attachments. This sample exhibits the highest pseudocapacitance of 279 F g−1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s−1, calculated from the cyclic voltammetry measurements. The sample synthesized by Cl− intercalation shows a nano-flower morphology with lower surface area, porosity and pseudocapacitance behaviour. The NiO sample prepared in the presence of CH3COO− ions showed a honeycomb type surface morphology with an intermediate pseudocapacitance value but higher reversibility. The galvanostatic charge–discharge and impedance spectroscopic measurements on these NiO electrodes were consistent with CV results. The Coulombic efficiency of all the three NiO samples was found to be high (∼85 to ∼99%) after 100 galvanostatic charge–discharge cycles. This study shows that the surface morphology and porosity of NiO are strongly influenced by the anions in the precursor salts, and in turn affect significantly the pseudocapacitance behavior and the power performance of NiO powders.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of cationic (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate), and nonionic (Triton X-100) surfactants for tuning the surface area, pore size and pore volume of NiO powders was investigated.
Abstract: In this work, NiO powders with a spherical morphology were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal technique using organic surfactants as templates and urea as the hydrolysis controlling agent. The effect of cationic (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate), and nonionic (Triton X-100) surfactants for tuning the surface area, pore size, pore volume, and electrochemical properties of NiO powders was investigated. The NiO powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, the Brunauer−Emmett−Teller method, cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We observed that the charge-storage mechanism in our NiO-based electrodes is significantly Faradic in nature rather than capacitive type. The ionic nature of the surfactant used in the preparation of NiO powders shows a considerable effect on their capacitance behavior. The specific capacitance values were found to increase in the order of NiO-T (144 F g−1) < NiO-C (239...
TL;DR: In this paper, nanowire morphologies of Co3O4 are synthesized in conventional reflux and microwave assisted methods, under homogeneous precipitation conditions, under the context of immense control of synthesis methods on the structural and functional characteristics of the materials.
Abstract: In the context of immense control of synthesis methods on the structural and functional characteristics of the materials, nanowire morphologies of Co3O4 are synthesized in conventional reflux and microwave-assisted methods, under homogeneous precipitation conditions. The Co3O4 sample synthesized by the conventional reflux method consists of randomly distributed thin nanowires while the microwave reflux method generates higher-dimensional and arranged Co3O4 nanowires. The surface area and pore structural analysis of the Co3O4 samples show significant difference in their meso- and macroporosity as well as specific surface area, due to differently crystallized products. The UV–Vis-DRS study shows crystallite size dependent optical transitions and band gaps. The magnetic study illustrates finite size effect and low temperature ferromagnetism in both samples; the lower-dimensional nanowires being more ferromagnetic than the higher-dimensional Co3O4 nanowires. Due to smaller crystallite size and more accessible...
TL;DR: In this article, the pseudocapacitance properties of transition metal oxides have been investigated and a review of the most relevant pseudo-capacitive materials in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolytes is presented.
Abstract: Electrochemical energy storage technology is based on devices capable of exhibiting high energy density (batteries) or high power density (electrochemical capacitors). There is a growing need, for current and near-future applications, where both high energy and high power densities are required in the same material. Pseudocapacitance, a faradaic process involving surface or near surface redox reactions, offers a means of achieving high energy density at high charge–discharge rates. Here, we focus on the pseudocapacitive properties of transition metal oxides. First, we introduce pseudocapacitance and describe its electrochemical features. Then, we review the most relevant pseudocapacitive materials in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolytes. The major challenges for pseudocapacitive materials along with a future outlook are detailed at the end.
01 Dec 1991
TL;DR: In this article, self-assembly is defined as the spontaneous association of molecules under equilibrium conditions into stable, structurally well-defined aggregates joined by noncovalent bonds.
Abstract: Molecular self-assembly is the spontaneous association of molecules under equilibrium conditions into stable, structurally well-defined aggregates joined by noncovalent bonds. Molecular self-assembly is ubiquitous in biological systems and underlies the formation of a wide variety of complex biological structures. Understanding self-assembly and the associated noncovalent interactions that connect complementary interacting molecular surfaces in biological aggregates is a central concern in structural biochemistry. Self-assembly is also emerging as a new strategy in chemical synthesis, with the potential of generating nonbiological structures with dimensions of 1 to 10(2) nanometers (with molecular weights of 10(4) to 10(10) daltons). Structures in the upper part of this range of sizes are presently inaccessible through chemical synthesis, and the ability to prepare them would open a route to structures comparable in size (and perhaps complementary in function) to those that can be prepared by microlithography and other techniques of microfabrication.
01 Nov 2000
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compared the power density characteristics of ultracapacitors and batteries with respect to the same charge/discharge efficiency, and showed that the battery can achieve energy densities of 10 Wh/kg or higher with a power density of 1.2 kW/kg.
Abstract: The science and technology of ultracapacitors are reviewed for a number of electrode materials, including carbon, mixed metal oxides, and conducting polymers. More work has been done using microporous carbons than with the other materials and most of the commercially available devices use carbon electrodes and an organic electrolytes. The energy density of these devices is 3¯5 Wh/kg with a power density of 300¯500 W/kg for high efficiency (90¯95%) charge/discharges. Projections of future developments using carbon indicate that energy densities of 10 Wh/kg or higher are likely with power densities of 1¯2 kW/kg. A key problem in the fabrication of these advanced devices is the bonding of the thin electrodes to a current collector such the contact resistance is less than 0.1 cm2. Special attention is given in the paper to comparing the power density characteristics of ultracapacitors and batteries. The comparisons should be made at the same charge/discharge efficiency.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed several key issues for improving the energy densities of supercapacitors and some mutual relationships among various effecting parameters, and challenges and perspectives in this exciting field are discussed.
Abstract: In recent years, tremendous research effort has been aimed at increasing the energy density of supercapacitors without sacrificing high power capability so that they reach the levels achieved in batteries and at lowering fabrication costs For this purpose, two important problems have to be solved: first, it is critical to develop ways to design high performance electrode materials for supercapacitors; second, it is necessary to achieve controllably assembled supercapacitor types (such as symmetric capacitors including double-layer and pseudo-capacitors, asymmetric capacitors, and Li-ion capacitors) The explosive growth of research in this field makes this review timely Recent progress in the research and development of high performance electrode materials and high-energy supercapacitors is summarized Several key issues for improving the energy densities of supercapacitors and some mutual relationships among various effecting parameters are reviewed, and challenges and perspectives in this exciting field are also discussed This provides fundamental insight into supercapacitors and offers an important guideline for future design of advanced next-generation supercapacitors for industrial and consumer applications