Bio: G. Viera is an academic researcher from University of Barcelona. The author has contributed to research in topics: Light scattering & Number density. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 89 citations.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used a Brownian free molecule coagulation model to determine the time evolution of particle size and their number density in situ multi-angle polarization-sensitive laser light scattering.
Abstract: To determine self-consistently the time evolution of particle size and their number density in situ multi-angle polarization-sensitive laser light scattering was used. Cross-polarization intensities (incident and scattered light intensities with opposite polarization) measured at 135 degrees and ex situ transmission electronic microscopy analysis demonstrate the existence of nonspherical agglomerates during the early phase of agglomeration. Later in the particle time development both techniques reveal spherical particles again. The presence of strong cross-polarization intensities is accompanied by low-frequency instabilities detected on the scattered light intensities and plasma emission. It is found that the particle radius and particle number density during the agglomeration phase can be well described by the Brownian free molecule coagulation model. Application of this neutral particle coagulation model is justified by calculation of the particle charge whereby it is shown that particles of a few tens of nanometer can be considered as neutral under our experimental conditions. The measured particle dispersion can be well described by a Brownian free molecule coagulation model including a log-normal particle size distribution. (C) 1996 American Institute of Physics.
TL;DR: The fundamentals of nanocrystal formation in plasmas are discussed, practical implementations of plasma reactors are reviewed, the materials that have been produced with nonthermal plAsmas and surface chemistries that have be developed are surveyed, and an overview of applications of plasma-synthesized nanocrystals is provided.
Abstract: Nonthermal plasmas have emerged as a viable synthesis technique for nanocrystal materials. Inherently solvent and ligand-free, nonthermal plasmas offer the ability to synthesize high purity nanocrystals of materials that require high synthesis temperatures. The nonequilibrium environment in nonthermal plasmas has a number of attractive attributes: energetic surface reactions selectively heat the nanoparticles to temperatures that can strongly exceed the gas temperature; charging of nanoparticles through plasma electrons reduces or eliminates nanoparticle agglomeration; and the large difference between the chemical potentials of the gaseous growth species and the species bound to the nanoparticle surfaces facilitates nanocrystal doping. This paper reviews the state of the art in nonthermal plasma synthesis of nanocrystals. It discusses the fundamentals of nanocrystal formation in plasmas, reviews practical implementations of plasma reactors, surveys the materials that have been produced with nonthermal pla...
TL;DR: In this paper, a novel scheme to fabricate nano-composite membrane materials containing fully dispersed nano-size zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) has been proposed for the first time.
Abstract: In this study, a novel scheme to fabricate nano-composite membrane materials containing fully dispersed nano-size zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) has been proposed for the first time. By mixing the as-synthesized ZIF-7 nano-particles without the traditional drying process with polybenzimidazole (PBI), the resultant membranes not only achieve an unprecedented ZIF-7 loading as high as 50 wt%, but also overcome the low permeability nature of PBI. The membranes exhibit characteristics of high transparency and mechanical flexibility, together with enhanced H2 permeability and ideal H2/CO2 permselectivity surpassing both neat PBI and ZIF-7 membranes. Advanced instrument analyses have confirmed the unique ZIF–polymer interface and elucidated the mixed matrix structure that contributes to the high ZIF loading and enhanced gas separation performance superior to the prediction from the Maxwell model. The high thermal stability, good dispersion of ZIF nanoparticles with minimal agglomeration and the attractive gas separation performance at elevated temperatures up to 180 °C indicate the practicability of this nano-composite material for hydrogen production and CO2 capture in realistic industrial applications under harsh and extreme environments.
TL;DR: In this article, mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) with uniform morphology comprising ZIF-8 nanoparticles were fabricated for industrial nature gas purification and C 3 H 6 /C 3 H 8 separation.
TL;DR: An overview of the most recent experimental and modelling efforts on powder formation in reactive plasmas is given in this paper, where particle charging and charge fluctuations regarding the particle agglomeration is emphasised.
Abstract: An overview of the most recent experimental and modelling efforts on powder formation in reactive plasmas is given. The physics and chemistry of these dusty plasmas and their fundamental mechanisms leading to the production of nanometre-sized particles and their successive agglomeration leading to micrometre-sized particles are reviewed. The central role of particle charging and of charge fluctuations regarding the particle agglomeration is emphasised. Finally, the influence of the dust particles on the plasma parameters is described and an outlook on the most eminent problems towards the understanding of the reactive, dusty plasmas is given.
TL;DR: In this paper, a combination of IR absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry has been applied to dusty radiofrequency (RF) plasmas in methane, acetylene and ethylene.
Abstract: Infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry have been simultaneously applied to dusty radiofrequency (RF) plasmas in methane, acetylene and ethylene. The combination of IR absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry allows the chemical composition and structure of the most relevant plasma-produced neutral species, the ionic plasma composition and the chemical composition of the nanometer-sized particles to be precisely identified. The production of acetylenic compounds (C2Hx) seems to be a key mechanism for the powder formation in all the investigated hydrocarbon plasmas. Electron attachment to acetylenic compounds and the following ion-neutral reactions might lead to the high-mass carbon anions, which are trapped in the plasma and finally end in powder formation. The hydrogenation of the monomer strongly influences the composition of the ions. Finally the composition of the plasma-produced particles is mainly sp3 bonded carbon and the infrared spectra show similarities to that of polyethylene.