Bio: Geoff Tennant is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Quality (business). The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 11 citations.
Topics: Quality (business)
05 Jul 2017
TL;DR: The review showed that BA may be effective in the treatment of depression in young people, but indicated a number of methodological problems in the included studies meaning that the results and conclusions should be treated with caution.
Abstract: Purpose Depression is currently the leading cause of illness and disability in young people. Evidence suggests that behavioural activation (BA) is an effective treatment for depression in adults but less research focuses on its application with young people. This review therefore examined whether BA is effective in the treatment of depression in young people. Methods A systematic review (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews reference: CRD42015020453), following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, was conducted to examine studies that had explored behavioural interventions for young people with depression. The electronic databases searched included the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsychINFO, and Scopus. A meta-analysis employing a generic inverse variance, random-effects model was conducted on the included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to examine whether there were overall effects of BA on the Children's Depression Rating Scale – Revised. Results Ten studies met inclusion criteria: three RCTs and seven within-participant designs (total n = 170). The review showed that BA may be effective in the treatment of depression in young people. The Cochrane risk of bias tool and the Moncrieff scale used to assess the quality of the included studies revealed a variety of limitations within each. Conclusions Despite demonstrating that BA may be effective in the treatment of depression in young people, the review indicated a number of methodological problems in the included studies meaning that the results and conclusions should be treated with caution. Furthermore, the paucity of studies in this area highlights the need for further research. Practitioner points Currently BA is included within National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE, 2009) guidelines as an evidence-based treatment for depression in adults with extensive research supporting its effectiveness. It is important to investigate whether it may also be effective in treating young people. Included studies reported reductions in depression scores across a range of measures following BA. BA may be an effective treatment of depression in young people.
TL;DR: RARC is comparable to LRC with better surgical results than ORC and LRC has better surgical outcomes than OrC.
Abstract: Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing outcomes between Open Radical Cystectomy (ORC), Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy (LRC) and Robot-assisted Radical Cystectomy (RARC). RARC is to be compared to LRC and ORC and LRC compared to ORC. Material and methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted, collating studies comparing RARC, LRC and ORC. Surgical and oncological outcome data were extracted and a meta-analysis was performed. Results: Twenty-four studies were selected with total of 2,104 cases analyzed. RARC had a longer operative time (OPT) compared to LRC with no statistical difference between length of stay (LOS) and estimated blood loss (EBL). RARC had a significantly shorter LOS, reduced EBL, lower complication rate and longer OPT compared to ORC. There were no significant differences regarding lymph node yield (LNY) and positive surgical margins (PSM.) LRC had a reduced EBL, shorter LOS and increased OPT compared to ORC. There was no significant difference regarding LNY. Conclusion: RARC is comparable to LRC with better surgical results than ORC. LRC has better surgical outcomes than ORC. With the unique technological features of the robotic surgical system and increasing trend of intra-corporeal reconstruction it is likely that RARC will become the surgical option of choice.
TL;DR: The genetic identification of human remains found in 26 mass graves located in Northern Spain shows a partial identification success rate, which is clearly a consequence of the lack of both appropriate family members for genetic comparisons and accurate information about the victims' location.
Abstract: The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and posterior dictatorship (until 1970s) stands as one of the major conflicts in the recent history of Spain. It led to nearly two hundred thousand men and women executed or murdered extra-judicially or after dubious legal procedures. Nowadays, most of them remain unidentified or even buried in irretraceable mass graves across Spain. Here, we present the genetic identification of human remains found in 26 mass graves located in Northern Spain. A total of 252 post-mortem remains were analyzed and compared to 186 relatives, allowing the identification of 87 victims. Overall, a significant success of DNA profiling was reached, since informative profiles (≥ 12 STRs and/or mitochondrial DNA profile) were obtained in 85.71% of the remains. This high performance in DNA profiling from challenging samples demonstrated the efficacy of DNA extraction and amplification methods used herein, given that only around 14.29% of the samples did not provide an informative genetic profile for the analysis performed, probably due to the presence of degraded and/or limited DNA in these remains. However, this study shows a partial identification success rate, which is clearly a consequence of the lack of both appropriate family members for genetic comparisons and accurate information about the victims' location. Hence, further perseverance in the exhumation of other intact graves as well as in the search of more alleged relatives is crucial in order to facilitate and increase the number of genetic identifications.
17 Jul 2018
TL;DR: In this article, the authors assess potential methods for mitigating N losses from digestate applied to a winter wheat crop and subsequent impact on yield and N offtake in both grain and straw.
Abstract: The anaerobic digestion of food waste converts waste products into ‘green’ energy. Additionally, the secondary product from this process is a nutrient-rich digestate, which could provide a viable alternative to synthetically-produced fertilisers. However, like fertilisers, digestate applied to agricultural land can be susceptible to both ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) losses, having negative environmental impacts, and reducing the amount of N available for crop uptake. Our main aim was to assess potential methods for mitigating N losses from digestate applied to a winter wheat crop and subsequent impact on yield. Plot trials experiments were conducted at two UK sites, England (North Wyke-NW) and Wales (Henfaes-HF), to assess NH3 and N2O losses, yield and N offtake following a single band-spread digestate application. Treatments examined were digestate (D), acidified-digestate (AD), digestate with the nitrification inhibitor DMPP (D+NI), AD with DMPP (AD+NI), and a zero-N control (C). Determination of N losses was conducted using wind tunnels for NH3, and static manual and automatic chambers for N2O. The N offtake in both grain and straw was also measured. Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) fertiliser N response plots (from 75 to 300 kg N ha−1) were included to compare yields with the organic N source. Across both sites, cCumulative NH3-N losses were 27.6 % from D and D+NI plots and 1.5 % for AD and AD+NI of the total N applied, a significant reduction of 95 % with acidification. Cumulative N2O losses, varied between 0.13 and 0.35 % of the total N applied and were reduced by 50 % with the use of DMPP although the differences were not significant. Grain yields for the digestate treatments were 7.52 – 9.21 and 7.23 – 9.23 t DM ha−1 at HF and NW, respectively. Yields were greater from the plots receiving acidified-digestate relative to the non-acidified treatments but the differences were not significant. The yields (as a function of the N applied with each treatment) obtained for the digestate treatments ranged between 84.2 % (D+NI) and 103.6 % (D) of the yields produced by the same N rate from an inorganic source at HF. Advanced processing of digestate
TL;DR: The issue of study quality in psychology is reviewed, and it is argued for valid and reliable means to assess study quality to enable the scientific community to make fair, unbiased appraisals of the implications and worthiness of study findings.
Abstract: The lack of replication of key effects in psychology has highlighted some fundamental problems with reporting of research findings and methods used (Asendorpf et al., 2013; Open Science Collaboration, 2015). Problems with replication have been attributed to sources of bias such as questionable research practices like HARK-ing (Kerr, 1998) or p-hacking (Simmons et al., 2011). Another potential source of bias is lack of precision in the conduct and methods used in psychological research, which likely introduces systematic error into data collected with the potential to affect results. A related issue is lack of accuracy in reporting study methods and findings. There is, therefore, increased recognition in the importance of transparency when reporting study outcomes to enable the scientific community to make fair, unbiased appraisals of the implications and worthiness of study findings. Lack of transparency hinders scientific progress as it may lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the implications of research findings, and may impede comparison and synthesis of findings across studies. As a result, researchers have become interested in research quality and the need for comprehensive, transparent reporting of findings (Asendorpf et al., 2013). This has resulted in calls for appropriate reporting standards and means to assess study quality (Cooper, 2011; Greenhalgh and Brown, 2017). In the present article we review the issue of study quality in psychology, and argue for valid and reliable means to assess study quality in psychology. Specifically, we contend that appropriate assessment checklists be developed for survey studies, given the prominence of surveys as a research method in the field.