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Geoffrey Ingram Taylor

Bio: Geoffrey Ingram Taylor is an academic researcher from University of Cambridge. The author has contributed to research in topics: Turbulence & Viscous liquid. The author has an hindex of 83, co-authored 137 publications receiving 53603 citations. Previous affiliations of Geoffrey Ingram Taylor include Trinity College, Dublin & Royal Society.


Papers
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TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown analytically that the distribution of concentration produced in this way is centred on a point which moves with the mean speed of flow and is symmetrical about it in spite of the asymmetry of the flow.
Abstract: When a soluble substance is introduced into a fluid flowing slowly through a small-bore tube it spreads out under the combined action of molecular diffusion and the variation of velocity over the cross-section. It is shown analytically that the distribution of concentration produced in this way is centred on a point which moves with the mean speed of flow and is symmetrical about it in spite of the asymmetry of the flow. The dispersion along the tube is governed by a virtual coefficient of diffusivity which can be calculated from observed distributions of concentration. Since the analysis relates the longitudinal diffusivity to the coefficient of molecular diffusion, observations of concentration along a tube provide a new method for measuring diffusion coefficients. The coefficient so obtained was found, with potassium permanganate, to agree with that measured in other ways. The results may be useful to physiologists who may wish to know how a soluble salt is dispersed in blood streams.

4,530 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that a conical interface between two fluids can exist in equilibrium in an electric field, but only when the cone has a semi-vertical angle 49.3$^\circ$.
Abstract: The disintegration of drops in strong electric fields is believed to play an important part in the formation of thunderstorms, at least in those parts of them where no ice crystals are present. Zeleny showed experimentally that disintegration begins as a hydrodynamical instability, but his ideas about the mechanics of the situation rest on the implicit assumption that instability occurs when the internal pressure is the same as that outside the drop. It is shown that this assumption is false and that instability of an elongated drop would not occur unless a pressure difference existed. When this error is corrected it is found that a drop, elongated by an electric field, becomes unstable when its length is 1.9 times its equatorial diameter, and the calculated critical electric field agrees with laboratory experiments to within 1%. When the drop becomes unstable the ends develop obtuse-angled conical points from which axial jets are projected but the stability calculations give no indication of the mechanics of this process. It is shown theoretically that a conical interface between two fluids can exist in equilibrium in an electric field, but only when the cone has a semi-vertical angle 49.3$^\circ$. Apparatus was constructed for producing the necessary field, and photographs show that conical oil/water interfaces and soap films can be produced at the caloulated voltage and that their semi-vertical angles are very close to 49.3$^\circ$. The photographs give an indication of how the axial jets are produced but no complete analytical description of the process is attempted.

2,994 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that when two superposed fluids of different densities are accelerated in a direction perpendicular to their interface, this surface is stable or unstable according to whether the acceleration is directed from the heavier to the lighter fluid or vice versa.
Abstract: It is shown that, when two superposed fluids of different densities are accelerated in a direction perpendicular to their interface, this surface is stable or unstable according to whether the acceleration is directed from the heavier to the lighter fluid or vice versa. The relationship between the rate of development of the instability and the length of wave-like disturbances, the acceleration and the densities is found, and similar calculations are made for the case when a sheet of liquid of uniform depth is accelerated.

2,839 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that a flow is possible in which equally spaced fingers advance steadily at very slow speeds, such that behind the tips of the advancing fingers the widths of the two columns of fluid are equal.
Abstract: When a viscous fluid filling the voids in a porous medium is driven forwards by the pressure of another driving fluid, the interface between them is liable to be unstable if the driving fluid is the less viscous of the two. This condition occurs in oil fields. To describe the normal modes of small disturbances from a plane interface and their rate of growth, it is necessary to know, or to assume one knows, the conditions which must be satisfied at the interface. The simplest assumption, that the fluids remain completely separated along a definite interface, leads to formulae which are analogous to known expressions developed by scientists working in the oil industry, and also analogous to expressions representing the instability of accelerated interfaces between fluids of different densities. In the latter case the instability develops into round-ended fingers of less dense fluid penetrating into the more dense one. Experiments in which a viscous fluid confined between closely spaced parallel sheets of glass, a Hele-Shaw cell, is driven out by a less viscous one reveal a similar state. The motion in a Hele-Shaw cell is mathematically analogous to two-dimensional flow in a porous medium. Analysis which assumes continuity of pressure through the interface shows that a flow is possible in which equally spaced fingers advance steadily. The ratio λ = (width of finger)/(spacing of fingers) appears as the parameter in a singly infinite set of such motions, all of which appear equally possible. Experiments in which various fluids were forced into a narrow Hele-Shaw cell showed that single fingers can be produced, and that unless the flow is very slow λ = (width of finger)/(width of channel) is close to , so that behind the tips of the advancing fingers the widths of the two columns of fluid are equal. When λ = 1/2 the calculated form of the fingers is very close to that which is registered photographically in the Hele-Shaw cell, but at very slow speeds where the measured value of λ increased from 1/2 to the limit 1.0 as the speed decreased to zero, there were considerable differences. Assuming that these might be due to surface tension, experiments were made in which a fluid of small viscosity, air or water, displaced a much more viscous oil. It is to be expected in that case that λ would be a function of μU/T only, where μ is the viscosity, U the speed of advance and T the interfacial tension. This was verified using air as the less viscous fluid penetrating two oils of viscosities 0.30 and 4.5 poises.

2,634 citations


Cited by
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TL;DR: In this paper, it is shown that to answer several questions of physical or engineering interest, it is necessary to know only the relatively simple elastic field inside the ellipsoid.
Abstract: It is supposed that a region within an isotropic elastic solid undergoes a spontaneous change of form which, if the surrounding material were absent, would be some prescribed homogeneous deformation. Because of the presence of the surrounding material stresses will be present both inside and outside the region. The resulting elastic field may be found very simply with the help of a sequence of imaginary cutting, straining and welding operations. In particular, if the region is an ellipsoid the strain inside it is uniform and may be expressed in terms of tabu­lated elliptic integrals. In this case a further problem may be solved. An ellipsoidal region in an infinite medium has elastic constants different from those of the rest of the material; how does the presence of this inhomogeneity disturb an applied stress-field uniform at large distances? It is shown that to answer several questions of physical or engineering interest it is necessary to know only the relatively simple elastic field inside the ellipsoid.

11,784 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a comprehensive review is presented on the researches and developments related to electrospun polymer nanofibers including processing, structure and property characterization, applications, and modeling and simulations.

6,987 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors consider the problem of finding the components of the velocity at every point of a point with rectangular cartesian coordinates x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, x 5, x 6, x 7, x 8.
Abstract: §1. We shall denote by uα ( P ) = uα ( x 1, x 2, x 3, t ), α = 1, 2, 3, the components of velocity at the moment t at the point with rectangular cartesian coordinates x 1, x 2, x 3. In considering the turbulence it is natural to assume the components of the velocity uα ( P ) at every point P = ( x 1, x 2, x 3, t ) of the considered domain G of the four-dimensional space ( x 1, x 2, x 3, t ) are random variables in the sense of the theory of probabilities (cf. for this approach to the problem Millionshtchikov (1939) Denoting by Ᾱ the mathematical expectation of the random variable A we suppose that ῡ 2 α and (d uα /d xβ )2― are finite and bounded in every bounded subdomain of the domain G .

6,063 citations