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George M. Whitesides

Bio: George M. Whitesides is a academic researcher at Harvard University who has co-authored 1739 publication(s) receiving 269833 citation(s). The author has an hindex of 240. Previous affiliations of George M. Whitesides include University of California, Davis & University of Texas at Austin. The author has done significant research in the topic(s): Microcontact printing & Self-assembled monolayer. more


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE05058
George M. Whitesides1Institutions (1)
27 Jul 2006-Nature
Abstract: The manipulation of fluids in channels with dimensions of tens of micrometres--microfluidics--has emerged as a distinct new field. Microfluidics has the potential to influence subject areas from chemical synthesis and biological analysis to optics and information technology. But the field is still at an early stage of development. Even as the basic science and technological demonstrations develop, other problems must be addressed: choosing and focusing on initial applications, and developing strategies to complete the cycle of development, including commercialization. The solutions to these problems will require imagination and ingenuity. more

Topics: Ingenuity (52%)

7,334 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1070821
29 Mar 2002-Science
Abstract: Self-assembly is the autonomous organization of components into patterns or structures without human intervention. Self-assembling processes are common throughout nature and technology. They involve components from the molecular (crystals) to the planetary (weather systems) scale and many different kinds of interactions. The concept of self-assembly is used increasingly in many disciplines, with a different flavor and emphasis in each. more

5,956 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/AC980656Z
Abstract: This paper describes a procedure that makes it possible to design and fabricate (including sealing) microfluidic systems in an elastomeric materialpoly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)in less than 24 h. A network of microfluidic channels (with width >20 μm) is designed in a CAD program. This design is converted into a transparency by a high-resolution printer; this transparency is used as a mask in photolithography to create a master in positive relief photoresist. PDMS cast against the master yields a polymeric replica containing a network of channels. The surface of this replica, and that of a flat slab of PDMS, are oxidized in an oxygen plasma. These oxidized surfaces seal tightly and irreversibly when brought into conformal contact. Oxidized PDMS also seals irreversibly to other materials used in microfluidic systems, such as glass, silicon, silicon oxide, and oxidized polystyrene; a number of substrates for devices are, therefore, practical options. Oxidation of the PDMS has the additional advantage that it ... more

Topics: PDMS stamp (68%)

5,257 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.276.5317.1425
30 May 1997-Science
Abstract: Human and bovine capillary endothelial cells were switched from growth to apoptosis by using micropatterned substrates that contained extracellular matrix-coated adhesive islands of decreasing size to progressively restrict cell extension. Cell spreading also was varied while maintaining the total cell-matrix contact area constant by changing the spacing between multiple focal adhesion-sized islands. Cell shape was found to govern whether individual cells grow or die, regardless of the type of matrix protein or antibody to integrin used to mediate adhesion. Local geometric control of cell growth and viability may therefore represent a fundamental mechanism for developmental regulation within the tissue microenvironment. more

Topics: Cell growth (53%), Integrin (51%), Extracellular matrix (51%) more

4,474 Citations

Cited by

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BMJ.323.7325.1375/A


08 Dec 2001-BMJ
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in … more

30,199 Citations

Open access
28 Jul 2005-
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。 more

18,940 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/3799353
Abstract: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols Used xiii 1. The Importance of Islands 3 2. Area and Number of Speicies 8 3. Further Explanations of the Area-Diversity Pattern 19 4. The Strategy of Colonization 68 5. Invasibility and the Variable Niche 94 6. Stepping Stones and Biotic Exchange 123 7. Evolutionary Changes Following Colonization 145 8. Prospect 181 Glossary 185 References 193 Index 201 more

Topics: Insular biogeography (73%)

14,169 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE07719
Keun Soo Kim1, Yue Zhao2, Houk Jang, Sang Yoon Lee3  +7 moreInstitutions (4)
05 Feb 2009-Nature
Abstract: Problems associated with large-scale pattern growth of graphene constitute one of the main obstacles to using this material in device applications. Recently, macroscopic-scale graphene films were prepared by two-dimensional assembly of graphene sheets chemically derived from graphite crystals and graphene oxides. However, the sheet resistance of these films was found to be much larger than theoretically expected values. Here we report the direct synthesis of large-scale graphene films using chemical vapour deposition on thin nickel layers, and present two different methods of patterning the films and transferring them to arbitrary substrates. The transferred graphene films show very low sheet resistance of approximately 280 Omega per square, with approximately 80 per cent optical transparency. At low temperatures, the monolayers transferred to silicon dioxide substrates show electron mobility greater than 3,700 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and exhibit the half-integer quantum Hall effect, implying that the quality of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition is as high as mechanically cleaved graphene. Employing the outstanding mechanical properties of graphene, we also demonstrate the macroscopic use of these highly conducting and transparent electrodes in flexible, stretchable, foldable electronics. more

Topics: Graphene oxide paper (70%), Graphene nanoribbons (68%), Bilayer graphene (67%) more

9,394 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.277.5330.1232
Gero Decher1Institutions (1)
29 Aug 1997-Science
Abstract: Multilayer films of organic compounds on solid surfaces have been studied for more than 60 years because they allow fabrication of multicomposite molecular assemblies of tailored architecture. However, both the Langmuir-Blodgett technique and chemisorption from solution can be used only with certain classes of molecules. An alternative approach—fabrication of multilayers by consecutive adsorption of polyanions and polycations—is far more general and has been extended to other materials such as proteins or colloids. Because polymers are typically flexible molecules, the resulting superlattice architectures are somewhat fuzzy structures, but the absence of crystallinity in these films is expected to be beneficial for many potential applications. more

9,283 Citations


Author's H-index: 240

No. of papers from the Author in previous years

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Author's top 5 most impactful journals

Journal of the American Chemical Society

285 papers, 37.2K citations


121 papers, 1.7K citations


78 papers, 21.1K citations

Journal of Organic Chemistry

73 papers, 5.3K citations

Angewandte Chemie

72 papers, 12K citations

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