Bio: Gérard Divay is an academic researcher from École nationale d'administration publique. The author has contributed to research in topics: Public good & Collective action. The author has an hindex of 7, co-authored 24 publications receiving 150 citations. Previous affiliations of Gérard Divay include Institut national de la recherche scientifique & Université du Québec.
01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: In this paper, a modele d'intervention is retenu dans trois micro-zones montrealaises for des projets pilotes tout juste amorces.
Abstract: Depuis quelques annees deja, au Quebec, au Canada et dans d’autres pays (France, Royaume-Uni et Etats-Unis notamment), on s’inquiete de nouveau de l’existence de quartiers de pauvrete dans les grandes metropoles. Dans ces pays ont ete developpees des politiques que l’on peut regrouper sous le vocable generique d’interventions de revitalisation urbaine integree. Ce modele d’intervention a ete retenu dans trois micro-zones montrealaises pour des projets pilotes tout juste amorces. Cela nous sert de pretexte pour nous interroger sur les modalites generales de ce modele d’intervention. Deux postulats de ce modele et leurs ecueils sous-jacents sont analyses et discutes. Le premier veut que la societe locale puisse et doive se prendre en main. Le second veut que la lutte contre la pauvrete urbaine concentree soit une affaire de mise aux normes du « milieu ». Sont abordes ensuite les problemes que pose la delimitation des zones d’intervention. Nous concluons en nous interrogeant sur la place que doit tenir la lutte territorialisee contre la pauvrete dans l’ensemble des dispositifs de lutte contre la pauvrete.
01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: Séguin and Divay as discussed by the authors explored the role of various levels of government, particularly the federal government, in fostering socially sustainable communities in Canada's major urban areas, especially in poor neighbourhoods.
Abstract: Foreword It is now widely acknowledged that Canada's cities need help if they are to reach their economic potential and offer a high quality of life to their citizens. Indeed, there is growing evidence that social and economic conditions have deteriorated for many urban citizens, the most vulnerable being single-parent families, Aboriginal people, recent immigrants, visible minorities, elderly women, and the disabled. Major questions remain as to what kind of help the cities need and from whom. And here much attention has turned to the federal government, even though the constitution says that municipalities are the " creatures " of the provinces, and most provinces guard this role jealously. To help clarify the potential roles for Ottawa, CPRN commissioned four papers. The first four focus on urban poverty, immigration, Aboriginal people, and housing. A fifth provides an overview of the ideas in the first four papers, and includes the reflections of a diverse group of Canadians from many sectors who participated in a Roundtable. Each of the papers provides a summary of the state of knowledge in their area and then sets out possible actions for the federal government. All four papers point to the challenges of governance of our cities. And, despite the constitutional division of powers, there is no question that the federal government is one of the key actors in Canada's cities by virtue of the fact that so many people live in cities and so much economic activity takes place there. The government is an actor as an employer, as a regulator, as a source of transfer payments to individuals, and as a taxing authority which sets many of the incentives with respect to social and economic behaviour. However, the federal government is only one of many actors. None of the policy actors – federal, provincial, municipal, corporate or voluntary – is in a position to function effectively on its own. The actions of all the actors are part of a densely woven fabric of governance which shapes the economic and social sustainability of cities. This paper, by Anne-Marie Séguin and Gérard Divay, explores the role of the various levels of government, particularly the federal government, in fostering socially sustainable communities in Canada's major urban areas, especially in poor neighbourhoods. I would like to thank the authors for their excellent survey of the literature, their thoughtful proposals and their active participation in the Roundtable, as well …
01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: In this paper, the Ville de Montreal pris une initiative novatrice and ambitieuse en lancant une experience de revitalisation urbaine integree in trois quartiers.
Abstract: Lors du Sommet de Montreal, la lutte a la pauvrete a ete une des preoccupations majeures de certains chantiers. A l’automne 2002, pour repondre a cette preoccupation, la Ville a pris une initiative novatrice et ambitieuse en lancant une experience de revitalisation urbaine integree dans trois quartiers. Cette initiative s’inscrivait aussi dans le cadre de la nouvelle responsabilite municipale edictee par la Loi 170 sur l’elaboration d’un plan d’action en matiere de developpement communautaire, economique et social. Le mandat confie a l’INRS comprenait trois grandes composantes : analyser le demarrage des trois experiences pilotes, creer un devis d’evaluation pour la seconde phase, incluant des indicateurs de developpement social, et identifier les facteurs de reussite associes aux approches RUI.
15 Jul 2013
TL;DR: In this article, a portrait general de la place de l’administration publique dans la gouvernance multiniveau infranationale impliquant le palier local, surtout a partir de la litterature and avec un accent particulier sur la situation canadienne.
Abstract: Cet article esquisse un portrait general de la place de l’administration publique dans la gouvernance multiniveau infranationale impliquant le palier local, surtout a partir de la litterature et avec un accent particulier sur la situation canadienne. Il propose d’abord un cadre general qui permet de situer les travaux selon les acteurs, les perimetres, les relations et les sites etudies. Il examine ensuite la pratique administrative dans les relations multiniveaux en soulignant les lacunes dans les connaissances a la fois sur les dispositifs, les roles et la facon dont sont releves quelques defis administratifs classiques. Il evoque en terminant quelques chantiers de recherche qui permettraient de mieux comprendre l’apport de divers acteurs dans la restructuration de l’Etat et de l’action publique.
01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: A review focusing on metropolitan issues, not urban issues in general; but rather those problems that can best be tackled at a metropolitan scale to overcome the problems ascribed to jurisdictional fragmentation is presented in this article.
Abstract: This review focuses on metropolitan issues, not urban issues in general; but rather those problems that can best be tackled at a metropolitan scale to overcome the problems ascribed to jurisdictional fragmentation. Most metropolitan areas consist of a densely developed core city surrounded by suburbs that are engulfing smaller urban centers and villages, sprawling out into the rural areas along transportation routes, and sprouting industries, commercial activities and housing in a seemingly random fashion. They are usually made up of many local governments, often of wildly differing size, population and organizing capacity. A second focus of this paper is metropolitan decision-making for collective goods. Area wide decisions involve complex systems of actors, and a huge variety of actions. Collective goods and services are those enjoyed or used by the population at large: infrastructure, economic, social and cultural development facilities, and environmental protection. Also known as public goods, or joint consumption goods, these are needs that are “non-subtractable”, as everyone requires them. Roads and sewers are such an example. However, the interest is in more than equipment and services as such, it is in the ultimate outcomes of their presence: fluid traffic movements for instance, or high levels of public health. Following this line of enquiry, the third focus is an attempt to understand how the outcomes relate to, or are influenced by, metropolitan decision-making structures and processes. This is a most challenging task, since there are very few analytical attempts at the evaluation of results except on a programmatic basis. While there has been a fair number of comparative studies on a single service such as transportation or water supply, there are very few attempts to look in detail at overall outcomes.
01 Jan 2003
01 Jan 2001
TL;DR: In this paper, three potential determinants of urban efficiency, size (geographical spread), sprawl (the location of jobs and homes in the city) and speed (of movement of people and goods), are considered with reference to studies of Paris, London and other cities.
Abstract: Three potential determinants of urban efficiency, size (geographical spread), sprawl (the location of jobs and homes in the city) and speed (of movement of people and goods), are considered with reference to studies of Paris, London and other cities. Efficiency is defined as labour productivity. It is suggested that there is a city size for which the difference between benefits and costs is maximal and that the available labour market in a large city is only a subset of its total labour market, depending on the transport efficiency and land use patterns (sprawl). The elasticities defining these relationships are modelled. For the covering abstract see ITRD E112371.
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the social revolution of our time and two theories of Democratization: Generative Politics and Positive Welfare, Poverty and Life Values, and Modernity under a Negative Sign: Ecological Issues and Life Politics.
Abstract: Preface. Introduction. 1. Conservatism: Radicalism Embraced. 2. Socialism: The Retreat from Radicalism. 3. The Social Revolutions of Our Time. 4. Two Theories of Democratization. 5. Contradictions of the Welfare State. 6. Generative Politics and Positive Welfare. 7. Positive Welfare, Poverty and Life Values. 8. Modernity under a Negative Sign: Ecological Issues and Life Politics. 9. Political Theory and the Problem of Violence. 10. Questions of Agency and Values. Notes. Index.