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Author

Gerhard Abstreiter

Other affiliations: Fujitsu, Nanosystems Initiative Munich, Max Planck Society  ...read more
Bio: Gerhard Abstreiter is an academic researcher from Technische Universität München. The author has contributed to research in topics: Quantum dot & Quantum well. The author has an hindex of 77, co-authored 791 publications receiving 25631 citations. Previous affiliations of Gerhard Abstreiter include Fujitsu & Nanosystems Initiative Munich.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
04 Nov 2004-Nature
TL;DR: This work demonstrates a single electron spin memory device in which the electron spin can be programmed by frequency selective optical excitation, and directly measure the intrinsic spin flip time and its dependence on magnetic field.
Abstract: The spin of a single electron subject to a static magnetic field provides a natural two-level system that is suitable for use as a quantum bit, the fundamental logical unit in a quantum computer. Semiconductor quantum dots fabricated by strain driven self-assembly are particularly attractive for the realization of spin quantum bits, as they can be controllably positioned, electronically coupled and embedded into active devices. It has been predicted that the atomic-like electronic structure of such quantum dots suppresses coupling of the spin to the solid-state quantum dot environment, thus protecting the 'spin' quantum information against decoherence. Here we demonstrate a single electron spin memory device in which the electron spin can be programmed by frequency selective optical excitation. We use the device to prepare single electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots with a well defined orientation, and directly measure the intrinsic spin flip time and its dependence on magnetic field. A very long spin lifetime is obtained, with a lower limit of about 20 milliseconds at a magnetic field of 4 tesla and at 1 kelvin.

850 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
08 Aug 2002-Nature
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that coherent optical excitations in the quantum-dot two-level system can be converted into deterministic photocurrents and found that this device can function as an optically triggered single-electron turnstile.
Abstract: Present-day information technology is based mainly on incoherent processes in conventional semiconductor devices. To realize concepts for future quantum information technologies, which are based on coherent phenomena, a new type of 'hardware' is required. Semiconductor quantum dots are promising candidates for the basic device units for quantum information processing. One approach is to exploit optical excitations (excitons) in quantum dots. It has already been demonstrated that coherent manipulation between two excitonic energy levels--via so-called Rabi oscillations--can be achieved in single quantum dots by applying electromagnetic fields. Here we make use of this effect by placing an InGaAs quantum dot in a photodiode, which essentially connects it to an electric circuit. We demonstrate that coherent optical excitations in the quantum-dot two-level system can be converted into deterministic photocurrents. For optical excitation with so-called pi-pulses, which completely invert the two-level system, the current is given by I = fe, where f is the repetition frequency of the experiment and e is the elementary charge. We find that this device can function as an optically triggered single-electron turnstile.

702 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
15 Nov 2001-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that the onset of collective behaviour such as Coulomb screening and plasmon scattering exhibits a distinct time delay of the order of the inverse plasma frequency, that is, several 10-14 seconds after ultrafast excitation of an electron–hole plasma in GaAs.
Abstract: Electrostatic coupling between particles is important in many microscopic phenomena found in nature. The interaction between two isolated point charges is described by the bare Coulomb potential, but in many-body systems this interaction is modified as a result of the collective response of the screening cloud surrounding each charge carrier. One such system involves ultrafast interactions between quasi-free electrons in semiconductors-which are central to high-speed and future quantum electronic devices. The femtosecond kinetics of nonequilibrium Coulomb systems has been calculated using static and dynamical screening models that assume the instantaneous formation of interparticle correlations. However, some quantum kinetic theories suggest that a regime of unscreened bare Coulomb collisions might exist on ultrashort timescales. Here we monitor directly the temporal evolution of the charge-charge interactions after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma in GaAs. We show that the onset of collective behaviour such as Coulomb screening and plasmon scattering exhibits a distinct time delay of the order of the inverse plasma frequency, that is, several 10(-14) seconds.

551 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The structural and optical properties of three different kinds of GaAs nanowires with 100% zinc-blende structure and with an average of 30% and 70% wurtzite are presented in this paper.
Abstract: The structural and optical properties of three different kinds of GaAs nanowires with 100% zinc-blende structure and with an average of 30% and 70% wurtzite are presented. A variety of shorter and longer segments of zinc-blende or wurtzite crystal phases are observed by transmission electron microscopy in the nanowires. Sharp photoluminescence lines are observed with emission energies tuned from 1.515 eV down to 1.43 eV when the percentage of wurtzite is increased. The downward shift of the emission peaks can be understood by carrier confinement at the interfaces, in quantum wells and in random short period superlattices existent in these nanowires, assuming a staggered band offset between wurtzite and zinc-blende GaAs. The latter is confirmed also by time-resolved measurements. The extremely local nature of these optical transitions is evidenced also by cathodoluminescence measurements. Raman spectroscopy on single wires shows different strain conditions, depending on the wurtzite content which affects also the band alignments. Finally, the occurrence of the two crystallographic phases is discussed in thermodynamic terms.

457 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The observation of two-dimensional electron systems and enhanced mobilities in Si/Ge strained-layer multilayer structures and the importance of the built-in strain in lowering the conduction band in Si is emphasized.
Abstract: We report the observation of two-dimensional electron systems and enhanced mobilities in Si/${\mathrm{Si}}_{0.5}$${\mathrm{Ge}}_{0.5}$ strained-layer multilayer structures. The built-in strain is measured by phonon Raman spectroscopy. The mobility enhancement depends strongly on the position of the doped region within the layers. The experimental results can be explained in a consistent way when carrier confinement in the Si layer is assumed. The importance of the built-in strain in lowering the conduction band in Si is emphasized.

453 citations


Cited by
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[...]

08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The electronic properties of ultrathin crystals of molybdenum disulfide consisting of N=1,2,…,6 S-Mo-S monolayers have been investigated by optical spectroscopy and the effect of quantum confinement on the material's electronic structure is traced.
Abstract: The electronic properties of ultrathin crystals of molybdenum disulfide consisting of N=1,2,…,6 S-Mo-S monolayers have been investigated by optical spectroscopy Through characterization by absorption, photoluminescence, and photoconductivity spectroscopy, we trace the effect of quantum confinement on the material's electronic structure With decreasing thickness, the indirect band gap, which lies below the direct gap in the bulk material, shifts upwards in energy by more than 06 eV This leads to a crossover to a direct-gap material in the limit of the single monolayer Unlike the bulk material, the MoS₂ monolayer emits light strongly The freestanding monolayer exhibits an increase in luminescence quantum efficiency by more than a factor of 10⁴ compared with the bulk material

12,822 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 1988-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) is presented.
Abstract: Deposits of clastic carbonate-dominated (calciclastic) sedimentary slope systems in the rock record have been identified mostly as linearly-consistent carbonate apron deposits, even though most ancient clastic carbonate slope deposits fit the submarine fan systems better. Calciclastic submarine fans are consequently rarely described and are poorly understood. Subsequently, very little is known especially in mud-dominated calciclastic submarine fan systems. Presented in this study are a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) that reveals a >250 m thick calciturbidite complex deposited in a calciclastic submarine fan setting. Seven facies are recognised from core and thin section characterisation and are grouped into three carbonate turbidite sequences. They include: 1) Calciturbidites, comprising mostly of highto low-density, wavy-laminated bioclast-rich facies; 2) low-density densite mudstones which are characterised by planar laminated and unlaminated muddominated facies; and 3) Calcidebrites which are muddy or hyper-concentrated debrisflow deposits occurring as poorly-sorted, chaotic, mud-supported floatstones. These

9,929 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Spintronics, or spin electronics, involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems as discussed by the authors, where the primary focus is on the basic physical principles underlying the generation of carrier spin polarization, spin dynamics, and spin-polarized transport.
Abstract: Spintronics, or spin electronics, involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems. This article reviews the current status of this subject, including both recent advances and well-established results. The primary focus is on the basic physical principles underlying the generation of carrier spin polarization, spin dynamics, and spin-polarized transport in semiconductors and metals. Spin transport differs from charge transport in that spin is a nonconserved quantity in solids due to spin-orbit and hyperfine coupling. The authors discuss in detail spin decoherence mechanisms in metals and semiconductors. Various theories of spin injection and spin-polarized transport are applied to hybrid structures relevant to spin-based devices and fundamental studies of materials properties. Experimental work is reviewed with the emphasis on projected applications, in which external electric and magnetic fields and illumination by light will be used to control spin and charge dynamics to create new functionalities not feasible or ineffective with conventional electronics.

9,158 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a comprehensive review is presented on the researches and developments related to electrospun polymer nanofibers including processing, structure and property characterization, applications, and modeling and simulations.

6,987 citations