Other affiliations: Bundeswehr University Munich
Bio: Gerhard Bauch is an academic researcher from NTT DoCoMo. The author has contributed to research in topics: MIMO & Communication channel. The author has an hindex of 26, co-authored 101 publications receiving 2063 citations. Previous affiliations of Gerhard Bauch include Bundeswehr University Munich.
••17 Jun 2007
TL;DR: This paper investigates and compares two different re-encoding schemes at the relay in a MIMO two-way decode-and-forward relaying scheme based on superposition coding and the bitwise XOR operation.
Abstract: Conventional half-duplex relaying schemes suffer from the loss in spectral efficiency due to the two channel uses required for the transmission from the source to the destination. Two-way relaying is an efficient means to reduce this loss in spectral efficiency by bidirectional simultaneous transmission of data between the two nodes. In this paper we study the impact of transmit channel state information at the relay in a MIMO two-way decode-and-forward relaying scheme. We investigate and compare two different re-encoding schemes at the relay. The first is based on superposition coding, whereas the second one is based on the bitwise XOR operation.
TL;DR: This article analytically prove that the three detectors are equivalent for asynchronous users of IDMA on frequency flat channels for complex modulation alphabets, and focuses on three suboptimum linear detectors: minimum mean square error (MMSE), rake, and soft-rake detectors from practical concerns.
Abstract: This article presents comprehensive comparisons of interleave division multiple access (IDMA) and direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) in terms of performance and complexity assuming iterative multiuser detection. IDMA can be seen as a special case of DS-CDMA with spreading gain of one using very low rate code and user-specific interleavers for user separation. We focus on three suboptimum linear detectors: minimum mean square error (MMSE), rake (or matched filter), and soft-rake detectors from practical concerns. We analytically prove that the three detectors are equivalent for asynchronous users of IDMA on frequency flat channels for complex modulation alphabets. Such equivalence has been shown only for binary phase shift keying (BPSK) in the literature. The equivalence guarantees the MMSE solution for IDMA without computationally expensive matrix inversions or matrix-vector multiplications. This is generally not the case for DS-CDMA since DS-CDMA is sensitive to user asynchronism. We also discuss complexity aspects when the MMSE detector is used where we focus on essential differences in complexity between IDMA and DS-CDMA, instead of discussing particular complexity reduction techniques. Computer simulations are performed in various scenarios and the performance is analyzed by bit error rate simulations as well as by extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts. The analysis reveals the advantages of IDMA over DS-CDMA in terms of performance and complexity under practical considerations, particularly in highly user loaded scenarios.
TL;DR: This work addresses the problem of choosing the cyclic delays and proposes a new robust design rule which enables to pick up the full spatial and frequency diversity which is inherent in a frequency-selective MIMO channel.
Abstract: We consider cyclic delay diversity in OFDMA. Cyclic delay diversity is an elegant way to obtain spatial diversity in an FEC coded OFDM system without exceeding the guard interval. We first address the problem of choosing the cyclic delays and propose a new robust design rule which enables to pick up the full spatial and frequency diversity which is inherent in a frequency-selective MIMO channel. Our choice of cyclic delays has consequences for the interleaving and multiple access scheme since the spatial diversity appears to be transformed into frequency diversity between neighbouring subcarriers. Therefore, a system with a conventional block frequency interleaver will fail to exploit the spatial diversity. We propose an interleaving and multiple access strategy which guarantees that all users obtain the maximum possible diversity advantage using FEC codes with a limited constraint length. Furthermore, we provide a performance comparison to transmit diversity from orthogonal designs
TL;DR: In this article, an equivalent to Sabine's equation for reverberation time in a room is valid for the completely diffused field, depending only on the volume, the surface area, and an effective absorption coefficient.
Abstract: In analogy with the established discipline of room acoustics, various aspects of diffuse wideband microwave propagation in a room are treated. It is shown that an equivalent to Sabine's equation for reverberation time in a room is valid for the completely diffused field, depending only on the volume, the surface area, and an effective absorption coefficient. An exponential decay of the power as a function of the delay is a consequence of the assumptions. Furthermore, the concept of a reverberation distance is also valid. This is the distance from a transmitting antenna where the received diffuse, randomly scattered power equals the direct line-of-sight received power, such that the diffuse power dominates for distances larger than the reverberation distance. A number of measurements in a large room support the theory with an effective absorption coefficient of 0.5. The power delay profiles around the room from a transmitter in the ceiling vary only in the first arriving part of the impulse, whereas the tail, being dominated by the diffuse field, has the same power level for a given delay and the same decay rate all over the room. It is also a consequence of the theory that the diffuse fields incident on an antenna are uniformly distributed in angle.
TL;DR: Simulation results show that a novel suboptimum zero-forcing allocation strategy that directly results in a set of virtually decoupled scalar channels tightly approaches the performance of the optimum solution, i.e., complexity reduction comes at almost no cost in terms of sum capacity.
Abstract: Assuming perfect channel state information at the transmitter of a Gaussian broadcast channel, strategies are investigated on how to assign subchannels in frequency and space domain to each receiver aiming at a maximization of the sum rate transmitted over the channel. For the general sum capacity maximizing solution, which has recently been found, a method is proposed that transforms each of the resulting vector channels into a set of scalar channels. This makes possible to achieve capacity by simply using scalar coding and detection techniques. The high complexity involved in the computation of this optimum solution motivates the introduction of a novel suboptimum zero-forcing allocation strategy that directly results in a set of virtually decoupled scalar channels. Simulation results show that this technique tightly approaches the performance of the optimum solution, i.e., complexity reduction comes at almost no cost in terms of sum capacity. As the optimum solution, the zero-forcing allocation strategy applies to any number of transmit antennas, receive antennas and users
TL;DR: The concept of software defined multiple access (SoDeMA) is proposed, which enables adaptive configuration of available multiple access schemes to support diverse services and applications in future 5G networks.
Abstract: The increasing demand of mobile Internet and the Internet of Things poses challenging requirements for 5G wireless communications, such as high spectral efficiency and massive connectivity. In this article, a promising technology, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA), is discussed, which can address some of these challenges for 5G. Different from conventional orthogonal multiple access technologies, NOMA can accommodate much more users via nonorthogonal resource allocation. We divide existing dominant NOMA schemes into two categories: power-domain multiplexing and code-domain multiplexing, and the corresponding schemes include power-domain NOMA, multiple access with low-density spreading, sparse code multiple access, multi-user shared access, pattern division multiple access, and so on. We discuss their principles, key features, and pros/cons, and then provide a comprehensive comparison of these solutions from the perspective of spectral efficiency, system performance, receiver complexity, and so on. In addition, challenges, opportunities, and future research trends for NOMA design are highlighted to provide some insight on the potential future work for researchers in this field. Finally, to leverage different multiple access schemes including both conventional OMA and new NOMA, we propose the concept of software defined multiple access (SoDeMA), which enables adaptive configuration of available multiple access schemes to support diverse services and applications in future 5G networks.
TL;DR: This tutorial provides a broad look at the field of limited feedback wireless communications, and reviews work in systems using various combinations of single antenna, multiple antenna, narrowband, broadband, single-user, and multiuser technology.
Abstract: It is now well known that employing channel adaptive signaling in wireless communication systems can yield large improvements in almost any performance metric. Unfortunately, many kinds of channel adaptive techniques have been deemed impractical in the past because of the problem of obtaining channel knowledge at the transmitter. The transmitter in many systems (such as those using frequency division duplexing) can not leverage techniques such as training to obtain channel state information. Over the last few years, research has repeatedly shown that allowing the receiver to send a small number of information bits about the channel conditions to the transmitter can allow near optimal channel adaptation. These practical systems, which are commonly referred to as limited or finite-rate feedback systems, supply benefits nearly identical to unrealizable perfect transmitter channel knowledge systems when they are judiciously designed. In this tutorial, we provide a broad look at the field of limited feedback wireless communications. We review work in systems using various combinations of single antenna, multiple antenna, narrowband, broadband, single-user, and multiuser technology. We also provide a synopsis of the role of limited feedback in the standardization of next generation wireless systems.
••01 Dec 2017
TL;DR: This work provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in power-domain multiplexing-aided NOMA, with a focus on the theoretical N OMA principles, multiple-antenna- aided NomA design, and on the interplay between NOMa and cooperative transmission.
Abstract: Driven by the rapid escalation of the wireless capacity requirements imposed by advanced multimedia applications (e.g., ultrahigh-definition video, virtual reality, etc.), as well as the dramatically increasing demand for user access required for the Internet of Things (IoT), the fifth-generation (5G) networks face challenges in terms of supporting large-scale heterogeneous data traffic. Nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA), which has been recently proposed for the third-generation partnership projects long-term evolution advanced (3GPP-LTE-A), constitutes a promising technology of addressing the aforementioned challenges in 5G networks by accommodating several users within the same orthogonal resource block. By doing so, significant bandwidth efficiency enhancement can be attained over conventional orthogonal multiple-access (OMA) techniques. This motivated numerous researchers to dedicate substantial research contributions to this field. In this context, we provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in power-domain multiplexing-aided NOMA, with a focus on the theoretical NOMA principles, multiple-antenna-aided NOMA design, on the interplay between NOMA and cooperative transmission, on the resource control of NOMA, on the coexistence of NOMA with other emerging potential 5G techniques and on the comparison with other NOMA variants. We highlight the main advantages of power-domain multiplexing NOMA compared to other existing NOMA techniques. We summarize the challenges of existing research contributions of NOMA and provide potential solutions. Finally, we offer some design guidelines for NOMA systems and identify promising research opportunities for the future.
TL;DR: Space shift keying concepts are extended to incorporate channel coding, where in particular, they are considered a bit interleaved coded modulation (BICM) system using iterative decoding for both convolutional and turbo codes.
Abstract: In this paper, we present space shift keying (SSK) as a new modulation scheme, which is based on spatial modulation (SM) concepts. Fading is exploited for multiple-input multiple-output(MIMO) channels to provide better performance over conventional amplitude/phase modulation (APM) techniques. In SSK, it is the antenna index used during transmission that relays information, rather than the transmitted symbols themselves. This absence of symbol information eliminates the transceiver elements necessary for APM transmission and detection (such as coherent detectors). As well, the simplicity involved in modulation reduces the detection complexity compared to that of SM, while achieving almost identical performance gains. Throughout the paper, we illustrate SSK's strength by studying its interaction with the fading channel. We obtain tight upper bounds on bit error probability, and discuss SSK's performance under some non-ideal channel conditions (estimation error and spatial correlation). Analytical and simulation results show performance gains over APM systems (3 dB at a bit error rate of 10-5), making SSK an interesting candidate for future wireless applications. We then extend SSK concepts to incorporate channel coding, where in particular, we consider a bit interleaved coded modulation (BICM) system using iterative decoding for both convolutional and turbo codes. Capacity results are derived, and improvements over APM are illustrated (up to 1 bits/s/Hz), with performance gains of up to 5 dB.
TL;DR: A comprehensive survey of the original birth, the most recent development, and the future research directions of non-orthogonal multiple access, along with a range of challenging open problems that should be solved for NOMA.
Abstract: In the fifth generation (5G) of wireless communication systems, hitherto unprecedented requirements are expected to be satisfied. As one of the promising techniques of addressing these challenges, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has been actively investigated in recent years. In contrast to the family of conventional orthogonal multiple access (OMA) schemes, the key distinguishing feature of NOMA is to support a higher number of users than the number of orthogonal resource slots with the aid of non-orthogonal resource allocation. This may be realized by the sophisticated inter-user interference cancellation at the cost of an increased receiver complexity. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the original birth, the most recent development, and the future research directions of NOMA. Specifically, the basic principle of NOMA will be introduced at first, with the comparison between NOMA and OMA especially from the perspective of information theory. Then, the prominent NOMA schemes are discussed by dividing them into two categories, namely, power-domain and code-domain NOMA. Their design principles and key features will be discussed in detail, and a systematic comparison of these NOMA schemes will be summarized in terms of their spectral efficiency, system performance, receiver complexity, etc. Finally, we will highlight a range of challenging open problems that should be solved for NOMA, along with corresponding opportunities and future research trends to address these challenges.