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Gerhard Kramer

Bio: Gerhard Kramer is an academic researcher from Technische Universität München. The author has contributed to research in topics: Communication channel & Upper and lower bounds. The author has an hindex of 49, co-authored 349 publications receiving 16862 citations. Previous affiliations of Gerhard Kramer include Bell Labs & University of Southern California.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The capacity results generalize broadly, including to multiantenna transmission with Rayleigh fading, single-bounce fading, certain quasi-static fading problems, cases where partial channel knowledge is available at the transmitters, and cases where local user cooperation is permitted.
Abstract: Coding strategies that exploit node cooperation are developed for relay networks. Two basic schemes are studied: the relays decode-and-forward the source message to the destination, or they compress-and-forward their channel outputs to the destination. The decode-and-forward scheme is a variant of multihopping, but in addition to having the relays successively decode the message, the transmitters cooperate and each receiver uses several or all of its past channel output blocks to decode. For the compress-and-forward scheme, the relays take advantage of the statistical dependence between their channel outputs and the destination's channel output. The strategies are applied to wireless channels, and it is shown that decode-and-forward achieves the ergodic capacity with phase fading if phase information is available only locally, and if the relays are near the source node. The ergodic capacity coincides with the rate of a distributed antenna array with full cooperation even though the transmitting antennas are not colocated. The capacity results generalize broadly, including to multiantenna transmission with Rayleigh fading, single-bounce fading, certain quasi-static fading problems, cases where partial channel knowledge is available at the transmitters, and cases where local user cooperation is permitted. The results further extend to multisource and multidestination networks such as multiaccess and broadcast relay channels.

2,842 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the capacity limit of fiber-optic communication systems (or fiber channels?) is estimated based on information theory and the relationship between the commonly used signal to noise ratio and the optical signal-to-noise ratio is discussed.
Abstract: We describe a method to estimate the capacity limit of fiber-optic communication systems (or ?fiber channels?) based on information theory. This paper is divided into two parts. Part 1 reviews fundamental concepts of digital communications and information theory. We treat digitization and modulation followed by information theory for channels both without and with memory. We provide explicit relationships between the commonly used signal-to-noise ratio and the optical signal-to-noise ratio. We further evaluate the performance of modulation constellations such as quadrature-amplitude modulation, combinations of amplitude-shift keying and phase-shift keying, exotic constellations, and concentric rings for an additive white Gaussian noise channel using coherent detection. Part 2 is devoted specifically to the "fiber channel.'' We review the physical phenomena present in transmission over optical fiber networks, including sources of noise, the need for optical filtering in optically-routed networks, and, most critically, the presence of fiber Kerr nonlinearity. We describe various transmission scenarios and impairment mitigation techniques, and define a fiber channel deemed to be the most relevant for communication over optically-routed networks. We proceed to evaluate a capacity limit estimate for this fiber channel using ring constellations. Several scenarios are considered, including uniform and optimized ring constellations, different fiber dispersion maps, and varying transmission distances. We further present evidences that point to the physical origin of the fiber capacity limitations and provide a comparison of recent record experiments with our capacity limit estimation.

2,135 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A coding and modulation technique is studied where the coded bits of an irregular low-density parity-check (LDPC) code are passed directly to a modulator, and thereby outperforms a scheme employing a parallel concatenated (turbo) code by wide margins when there are more transmit than receive antennas.
Abstract: A coding and modulation technique is studied where the coded bits of an irregular low-density parity-check (LDPC) code are passed directly to a modulator. At the receiver, the variable nodes of the LDPC decoder graph are connected to detector nodes, and iterative decoding is accomplished by viewing the variable and detector nodes as one decoder. The code is optimized by performing a curve fitting on extrinsic information transfer charts. Design examples are given for additive white Gaussian noise channels, as well as multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) fading channels where the receiver, but not the transmitter, knows the channel. For the MIMO channels, the technique operates within 1.25 dB of capacity for various antenna configurations, and thereby outperforms a scheme employing a parallel concatenated (turbo) code by wide margins when there are more transmit than receive antennas.

1,146 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A model is introduced that applies to decoding problems, including the iterative decoding of parallel concatenation codes, serially concatenated codes, low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and repeat-accumulate (RA) codes; several properties of such functions are proved for erasure channels.
Abstract: Extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts are a tool for predicting the convergence behavior of iterative processors for a variety of communication problems. A model is introduced that applies to decoding problems, including the iterative decoding of parallel concatenated (turbo) codes, serially concatenated codes, low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and repeat-accumulate (RA) codes. EXIT functions are defined using the model, and several properties of such functions are proved for erasure channels. One property expresses the area under an EXIT function in terms of a conditional entropy. A useful consequence of this result is that the design of capacity-approaching codes reduces to a curve-fitting problem for all the aforementioned codes. A second property relates the EXIT function of a code to its Helleseth-Klove-Levenshtein information functions, and thereby to the support weights of its subcodes. The relation is via a refinement of information functions called split information functions, and via a refinement of support weights called split support weights. Split information functions are used to prove a third property that relates the EXIT function of a linear code to the EXIT function of its dual.

806 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that if the channel crosstalk coefficient magnitudes lie below thresholds defined by the power constraints then single-user detection at each receiver is sum-rate optimal, i.e., treating the interference as noise incurs no loss in performance.
Abstract: A new outer bound on the capacity region of Gaussian interference channels is developed. The bound combines and improves existing genie-aided methods and is shown to give the sum-rate capacity for noisy interference as defined in this paper. Specifically, it is shown that if the channel crosstalk coefficient magnitudes lie below thresholds defined by the power constraints then single-user detection at each receiver is sum-rate optimal, i.e., treating the interference as noise incurs no loss in performance. This is the first capacity result for the Gaussian interference channel with weak to moderate interference. Furthermore, for certain mixed (weak and strong) interference scenarios, the new outer bounds give a corner point of the capacity region.

536 citations


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Book
01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: A valuable reference for the novice as well as for the expert who needs a wider scope of coverage within the area of cryptography, this book provides easy and rapid access of information and includes more than 200 algorithms and protocols.
Abstract: From the Publisher: A valuable reference for the novice as well as for the expert who needs a wider scope of coverage within the area of cryptography, this book provides easy and rapid access of information and includes more than 200 algorithms and protocols; more than 200 tables and figures; more than 1,000 numbered definitions, facts, examples, notes, and remarks; and over 1,250 significant references, including brief comments on each paper.

13,597 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Using distributed antennas, this work develops and analyzes low-complexity cooperative diversity protocols that combat fading induced by multipath propagation in wireless networks and develops performance characterizations in terms of outage events and associated outage probabilities, which measure robustness of the transmissions to fading.
Abstract: We develop and analyze low-complexity cooperative diversity protocols that combat fading induced by multipath propagation in wireless networks. The underlying techniques exploit space diversity available through cooperating terminals' relaying signals for one another. We outline several strategies employed by the cooperating radios, including fixed relaying schemes such as amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward, selection relaying schemes that adapt based upon channel measurements between the cooperating terminals, and incremental relaying schemes that adapt based upon limited feedback from the destination terminal. We develop performance characterizations in terms of outage events and associated outage probabilities, which measure robustness of the transmissions to fading, focusing on the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime. Except for fixed decode-and-forward, all of our cooperative diversity protocols are efficient in the sense that they achieve full diversity (i.e., second-order diversity in the case of two terminals), and, moreover, are close to optimum (within 1.5 dB) in certain regimes. Thus, using distributed antennas, we can provide the powerful benefits of space diversity without need for physical arrays, though at a loss of spectral efficiency due to half-duplex operation and possibly at the cost of additional receive hardware. Applicable to any wireless setting, including cellular or ad hoc networks-wherever space constraints preclude the use of physical arrays-the performance characterizations reveal that large power or energy savings result from the use of these protocols.

12,761 citations

01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: The table of integrals series and products is universally compatible with any devices to read and is available in the book collection an online access to it is set as public so you can get it instantly.
Abstract: Thank you very much for downloading table of integrals series and products. Maybe you have knowledge that, people have look hundreds times for their chosen books like this table of integrals series and products, but end up in harmful downloads. Rather than reading a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon, instead they cope with some harmful virus inside their laptop. table of integrals series and products is available in our book collection an online access to it is set as public so you can get it instantly. Our book servers saves in multiple locations, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Merely said, the table of integrals series and products is universally compatible with any devices to read.

4,085 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For the fully connected K user wireless interference channel where the channel coefficients are time-varying and are drawn from a continuous distribution, the sum capacity is characterized as C(SNR)=K/2log (SNR)+o(log( SNR), which almost surely has K/2 degrees of freedom.
Abstract: For the fully connected K user wireless interference channel where the channel coefficients are time-varying and are drawn from a continuous distribution, the sum capacity is characterized as C(SNR)=K/2log(SNR)+o(log(SNR)) . Thus, the K user time-varying interference channel almost surely has K/2 degrees of freedom. Achievability is based on the idea of interference alignment. Examples are also provided of fully connected K user interference channels with constant (not time-varying) coefficients where the capacity is exactly achieved by interference alignment at all SNR values.

3,385 citations