Bio: Gertrud Westin is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Crystal structure & Tetragonal crystal system. The author has an hindex of 33, co-authored 197 publications receiving 4061 citations.
TL;DR: Sheep prostate glands were vacuum-dried and the smooth muscle stimulating factor (prostaglandin) was isolated in crystalline form and the formula is C20-H36-05.
Abstract: Sheep prostate glands were vacuum-dried and the smooth muscle stimulating factor (prostaglandin) was isolated in crystalline form. The formula for the isolated factor is C20-H36-05. Results were discovered via first and second phase chromatography and paper chromatography .
TL;DR: In this paper, the decay of donor luminescence in a rigid solution when modified by electronic energy transfer by the exchange mechanism is treated theoretically, and the rate constant for the elementary process of energy transfer is taken to be of the Dexter form, const exp(−2R/L), where R is the donor-acceptor distance and L is a positive constant.
Abstract: The decay of donor luminescence in a rigid solution when modified by electronic energy transfer by the exchange mechanism is treated theoretically. The rate constant for the elementary process of energy transfer is taken to be of the Dexter form, const exp(−2R/L), where R is the donor—acceptor distance and L is a positive constant. Calculations are made of the yield and decay time of the donor luminescence as functions of the acceptor concentration. The resulting relationship among the above quantities enables one to analyze experimental data in a quantitative manner, and thereby to obtain information about an intermolecular exchange interaction. As an example of such an analysis, Ermolaev's data on triplet—triplet transfer between some aromatic molecules are compared with our results, and very good agreement is found with a choice of the single parameter L.
TL;DR: The surface properties of a surface are influenced by the surface groups and the knowledge of their existence and of their chemistry are important for many technological processes as mentioned in this paper, which is why it is important to have knowledge of these surface groups.
Abstract: Publisher Summary The properties of a surface are influenced by the surface groups and the knowledge of their existence and of their chemistry are important for many technological processes This chapter examines the surface compounds on carbon—microcrystalline carbon, graphite, and diamond—on silica, on titania, and on alumina and silica–alumina Most important and best known among the surface compounds of carbon are those with oxygen and with sulfur Thus, two kinds of surface oxides are known Basic surface oxides are formed always when a carbon surface is freed from all surface compounds by heating in a vacuum or in an inert atmosphere and comes into contact with oxygen only after cooling to low temperatures Acidic surface oxides are formed when carbon is treated with oxygen a temperatures near its ignition point Unambiguous identification of carboxyl groups has been achieved by two reactions of the acyl chlorides: Friedel–Crafts reaction and Schmidt rearrangement
TL;DR: It is shown that rat skeletal muscle expresses neuronal-type NO synthase and that activity varies among several respiratory and limb muscles, and that two physiological functions of NO in skeletal muscle are supported.
Abstract: REACTIVE oxygen intermediates modulate skeletal muscle contraction1,2, but little is known about the role of nitric oxide (NO). Here we show that rat skeletal muscle expresses neuronal-type NO synthase and that activity varies among several respiratory and limb muscles. Immunohistochemistry showed prominent staining of type II (fast) fibre cell membranes with antibodies against neuronal-type NO synthase. NO synthase activity in muscles correlated with type II fibre density. Resting diaphragm muscle produced detectable NOx, but no reactive oxygen intermediates. In contrast, actively contracting muscle generated increased levels of reactive oxygen intermediates. Contractile function was augmented by blockers of NO synthase, extracellular NO chela-tion, and guanylyl cyclase inhibition; it was depressed by NO donors and by increased levels of cyclic GMP. Force–frequency plots of different muscles showed an inverse correlation between NO synthase activity and force development. Our results support two physiological functions of NO in skeletal muscle. The first is to promote relaxation through the cGMP pathway3,4. The second is to modulate increases in contraction that are dependent on reactive oxygen intermediates and which are thought to occur through reactions with regulatory thiols on the sarcoplasmic reticulum5,6.
TL;DR: A Cook's tour of the organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium, as represented, inter alia, by garlic (Allium sativum L.) and onion(Allium cepa L.). as discussed by the authors reported on the biosynthesis of the S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine S-oxides (aroma and flavor precursors) in intact plants and on how upon cutting or crushing the plants these precursor are cleaved by allinase enzymes, giving sulfenic acids.
Abstract: A Cook's tour is presented of the organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium, as represented, inter alia, by garlic (Allium sativum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.). We report on the biosynthesis of the S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine S-oxides (aroma and flavor precursors) in intact plants and on how upon cutting or crushing the plants these precursors are cleaved by allinase enzymes, giving sulfenic acids—highly reactive organosulfur intermediates. In garlic, 2-propenesulfenic acid gives allicin, a thiosulfinate with antibiotic properties, while in onion 1-propenesulfenic acid rearranges to the sulfine (Z)-propanethial S-oxide, the lachrymatory factor (LF) of onion. Highlights of onion chemistry include the assignment of stereochemistry to the LF and determination of the mechanism of its dimerization; the isolation, characterization, and synthesis of thiosulfinates which most closely duplicate the taste and aroma of the freshly cut bulb, and additional unusual compounds such as zwiebelanes (dithiabicyclo[2.1.1]hexanes), a bis-sulfine (a 1,4-butanedithial S,S′-dioxide), antithrombotic and antiasthmatic cepaenes (α-sulfinyl disulfides), and vic-disulfoxides. Especially noteworthy in the chemistry of garlic are the discovery of ajoene, a potent antithrombotic agent from garlic, and the elucidation of the unique sequence of reactions that occur when diallyl disulfide, which is present in steam-distilled garlic oil, is heated. Reaction mechanisms under discussion include [3, 3]- and [2, 3]-sigma-tropic rearrangements involving sulfur (e.g. sulfoxide-accelerated thio- and dithio-Claisen rearrangements) and cycloadditions involving thiocarbonyl systems. In view of the culinary importance of alliaceous plants as well as the unique history of their use in folk medicine, this survey concludes with a discussion of the physiological activity of the components of these plants: cancer prevention, antimicrobial activity, insect and animal attractive/repulsive activity, olfactory–gustatory–lachrymatory properties, effect on lipid metabolism, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity and properties associated with ajoene. And naturally, comments about onion and garlic induced bad breath and heartburn may not be overlooked.
TL;DR: This review comprises a detailed and critical assessment of current knowledge regarding the formation, occurrence, metabolism, regulatory properties, and other activities of oxysterols in mammalian systems.
Abstract: Oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol (oxysterols) present a remarkably diverse profile of biological activities, including effects on sphingolipid metabolism, platelet aggregation, apoptosis, and ...