scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

Gibion Makiwa

Other affiliations: University of Zimbabwe
Bio: Gibion Makiwa is an academic researcher from University of Lethbridge. The author has contributed to research in topics: Spire & Spectrometer. The author has an hindex of 21, co-authored 48 publications receiving 1587 citations. Previous affiliations of Gibion Makiwa include University of Zimbabwe.

Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the photometric, spectroscopic and spatial accuracy of the SPIRE system using a combination of the emission from the Herschel telescope itself and the modelled continuum emission from solar system objects and other astronomical targets.
Abstract: SPIRE, the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver, is the Herschel Space Observatory's submillimetre camera and spectrometer. It contains a three-band imaging photometer operating at 250, 350 and 500 μm, and an imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) covering 194–671 μm (447-1550 GHz). In this paper we describe the initial approach taken to the absolute calibration of the SPIRE instrument using a combination of the emission from the Herschel telescope itself and the modelled continuum emission from solar system objects and other astronomical targets. We present the photometric, spectroscopic and spatial accuracy that is obtainable in data processed through the “standard” pipelines. The overall photometric accuracy at this stage of the mission is estimated as 15% for the photometer and between 15 and 50% for the spectrometer. However, there remain issues with the photometric accuracy of the spectra of low flux sources in the longest wavelength part of the SPIRE spectrometer band. The spectrometer wavelength accuracy is determined to be better than 1/10th of the line FWHM. The astrometric accuracy in SPIRE maps is found to be 2 arcsec when the latest calibration data are used. The photometric calibration of the SPIRE instrument is currently determined by a combination of uncertainties in the model spectra of the astronomical standards and the data processing methods employed for map and spectrum calibration. Improvements in processing techniques and a better understanding of the instrument performance will lead to the final calibration accuracy of SPIRE being determined only by uncertainties in the models of astronomical standards.

244 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a power spectrum analysis of the Herschel-SPIRE observations of the Polaris flare, a high Galactic latitude cirrus cloud midway between the diffuse and molecular phases, is presented.
Abstract: We present a power spectrum analysis of the Herschel-SPIRE observations of the Polaris flare, a high Galactic latitude cirrus cloud midway between the diffuse and molecular phases. The SPIRE images of the Polaris flare reveal for the first time the structure of the diffuse interstellar medium down to 0.01 parsec over a 10 square degrees region. These exceptional observations highlight the highly filamentary and clumpy structure of the interstellar medium even in diffuse regions of the map. The power spectrum analysis shows that the structure of the interstellar medium is well described by a single power law with an exponent of -2.7±0.1 at all scales from 30” to 8°. That the power spectrum slope of the dust emission is constant down to the SPIRE angular resolution is an indication that the inertial range of turbulence extends down to the 0.01 pc scale. The power spectrum analysis also allows the identification of a Poissonian component at sub-arcminute scales in agreement with predictions of the cosmic infrared background level at SPIRE wavelengths. Finally, the comparison of the SPIRE and IRAS 100 μm data of the Polaris flare clearly assesses the capability of SPIRE in maping diffuse emission over large areas.

181 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a power spectrum analysis of the Herschel-SPIRE observations of the Polaris flare, a high Galactic latitude cirrus cloud midway between the diffuse and molecular phases, is presented.
Abstract: We present a power spectrum analysis of the Herschel-SPIRE observations of the Polaris flare, a high Galactic latitude cirrus cloud midway between the diffuse and molecular phases. The SPIRE images of the Polaris flare reveal for the first time the structure of the diffuse interstellar medium down to 0.01 parsec over a 10 square degrees region. These exceptional observations highlight the highly filamentary and clumpy structure of the interstellar medium even in diffuse regions of the map. The power spectrum analysis shows that the structure of the interstellar medium is well described by a single power law with an exponent of -2.7 +- 0.1 at all scales from 30" to 8 degrees. That the power spectrum slope of the dust emission is constant down to the SPIRE angular resolution is an indication that the inertial range of turbulence extends down to the 0.01 pc scale. The power spectrum analysis also allows the identification of a Poissonian component at sub-arcminute scales in agreement with predictions of the cosmic infrared background level at SPIRE wavelengths. Finally, the comparison of the SPIRE and IRAS 100 micron data of the Polaris flare clearly assesses the capability of SPIRE in maping diffuse emission over large areas.

165 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the surface morphology of the samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-HRTEM was used to study the fine structure of samples.

99 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used the Herschel Spectral and Photometric Recurrent Unit (SPIRE) and Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) to calibrate a spatially extended source to a point source.
Abstract: The Herschel Spectral and Photometric REceiver (SPIRE) instrument consists of an imaging photometric camera and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), both operating over a frequency range of ∼450–1550 GHz. In this paper, we briefly review the FTS design, operation, and data reduction, and describe in detail the approach taken to relative calibration (removal of instrument signatures) and absolute calibration against standard astronomical sources. The calibration scheme assumes a spatially extended source and uses the Herschel telescope as primary calibrator. Conversion from extended to point-source calibration is carried out using observations of the planet Uranus. The model of the telescope emission is shown to be accurate to within 6 per cent and repeatable to better than 0.06 per cent and, by comparison with models of Mars and Neptune, the Uranus model is shown to be accurate to within 3 per cent. Multiple observations of a number of point-like sources show that the repeatability of the calibration is better than 1 per cent, if the effects of the satellite absolute pointing error (APE) are corrected. The satellite APE leads to a decrement in the derived flux, which can be up to ∼10 per cent (1 σ) at the high-frequency end of the SPIRE range in the first part of the mission, and ∼4 per cent after Herschel operational day 1011. The lower frequency range of the SPIRE band is unaffected by this pointing error due to the larger beam size. Overall, for well-pointed, point-like sources, the absolute flux calibration is better than 6 per cent, and for extended sources where mapping is required it is better than 7 per cent.

92 citations


Cited by
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
Matthew Joseph Griffin, Alain Abergel1, A. Abreu, Peter A. R. Ade2  +186 moreInstitutions (27)
TL;DR: The Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) is the Herschel Space Observatory's sub-millimetre camera and spectrometer as discussed by the authors, which is used for image and spectroscopic data acquisition.
Abstract: The Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE), is the Herschel Space Observatory`s submillimetre camera and spectrometer It contains a three-band imaging photometer operating at 250, 350 and 500 mu m, and an imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) which covers simultaneously its whole operating range of 194-671 mu m (447-1550 GHz) The SPIRE detectors are arrays of feedhorn-coupled bolometers cooled to 03 K The photometer has a field of view of 4' x 8', observed simultaneously in the three spectral bands Its main operating mode is scan-mapping, whereby the field of view is scanned across the sky to achieve full spatial sampling and to cover large areas if desired The spectrometer has an approximately circular field of view with a diameter of 26' The spectral resolution can be adjusted between 12 and 25 GHz by changing the stroke length of the FTS scan mirror Its main operating mode involves a fixed telescope pointing with multiple scans of the FTS mirror to acquire spectral data For extended source measurements, multiple position offsets are implemented by means of an internal beam steering mirror to achieve the desired spatial sampling and by rastering of the telescope pointing to map areas larger than the field of view The SPIRE instrument consists of a cold focal plane unit located inside the Herschel cryostat and warm electronics units, located on the spacecraft Service Module, for instrument control and data handling Science data are transmitted to Earth with no on-board data compression, and processed by automatic pipelines to produce calibrated science products The in-flight performance of the instrument matches or exceeds predictions based on pre-launch testing and modelling: the photometer sensitivity is comparable to or slightly better than estimated pre-launch, and the spectrometer sensitivity is also better by a factor of 15-2

2,425 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors review the theoretical underpinning, techniques, and results of efforts to estimate the CO-to-H2 conversion factor in different environments, and recommend a conversion factor XCO = 2×10 20 cm −2 (K km s −1 ) −1 with ±30% uncertainty.
Abstract: CO line emission represents the most accessible and widely used tracer of the molecular interstellar medium. This renders the translation of observed CO intensity into total H2 gas mass critical to understand star formation and the interstellar medium in our Galaxy and beyond. We review the theoretical underpinning, techniques, and results of efforts to estimate this CO-to-H2 “conversion factor,” XCO, in different environments. In the Milky Way disk, we recommend a conversion factor XCO = 2×10 20 cm −2 (K km s −1 ) −1 with ±30% uncertainty. Studies of other “normal galaxies” return similar values in Milky Way-like disks, but with greater scatter and systematic uncertainty. Departures from this Galactic conversion factor are both observed and expected. Dust-based determinations, theoretical arguments, and scaling relations all suggest that XCO increases with decreasing metallicity, turning up sharply below metallicity ≈ 1/3–1/2 solar in a manner consistent with model predictions that identify shielding as a key parameter. Based on spectral line modeling and dust observations, XCO appears to drop in the central, bright regions of some but not all galaxies, often coincident with regions of bright CO emission and high stellar surface density. This lower XCO is also present in the overwhelmingly molecular interstellar medium of starburst galaxies, where several lines of evidence point to a lower CO-to-H2 conversion factor. At high redshift, direct evidence regarding the conversion factor remains scarce; we review what is known based on dynamical modeling and other arguments. Subject headings: ISM: general — ISM: molecules — galaxies: ISM — radio lines: ISM

2,004 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the first results from the Gould Belt survey, obtained toward the Aquila Rift and Polaris Flare regions during the'science demonstration phase' of Herschel, were summarized.
Abstract: We summarize the first results from the Gould Belt survey, obtained toward the Aquila Rift and Polaris Flare regions during the 'science demonstration phase' of Herschel. Our 70-500 micron images taken in parallel mode with the SPIRE and PACS cameras reveal a wealth of filamentary structure, as well as numerous dense cores embedded in the filaments. Between ~ 350 and 500 prestellar cores and ~ 45-60 Class 0 protostars can be identified in the Aquila field, while ~ unbound starless cores and no protostars are observed in the Polaris field. The prestellar core mass function (CMF) derived for the Aquila region bears a strong resemblance to the stellar initial mass function (IMF), already confirming the close connection between the CMF and the IMF with much better statistics than earlier studies. Comparing and contrasting our Herschel results in Aquila and Polaris, we propose an observationally-driven scenario for core formation according to which complex networks of long, thin filaments form first within molecular clouds, and then the densest filaments fragment into a number of prestellar cores via gravitational instability.

1,542 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the last decade, observations of the cool interstellar medium (ISM) in distant galaxies via molecular and atomic fine structure line (FSL) emission have gone from a curious look into a few extreme, rare objects to a mainstream tool for studying galaxy formation out to the highest redshifts as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Over the past decade, observations of the cool interstellar medium (ISM) in distant galaxies via molecular and atomic fine structure line (FSL) emission have gone from a curious look into a few extreme, rare objects to a mainstream tool for studying galaxy formation out to the highest redshifts. Molecular gas has been observed in close to 200 galaxies at z > 1, including numerous AGN host-galaxies out to z ∼ 7, highly star-forming submillimeter galaxies, and increasing samples of main-sequence color-selected star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.5 to 2.5. Studies have moved well beyond simple detections to dynamical imaging at kiloparsec-scale resolution and multiline, multispecies studies that determine the physical conditions in the ISM in early galaxies. Observations of the cool gas are the required complement to studies of the stellar density and star-formation history of the Universe as they reveal the phase of the ISM that immediately precedes star formation in galaxies. Current observations suggest that t...

1,041 citations