Bio: Gil Rilov is an academic researcher from National Institute of Oceanography, India. The author has contributed to research in topics: Biodiversity & Intertidal zone. The author has an hindex of 37, co-authored 112 publications receiving 3544 citations. Previous affiliations of Gil Rilov include Tel Aviv University & University of Haifa.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: It is suggested that vertical structures are more attractive to fish settlement and recruitment than moderately sloped bottoms such as those found at the fringing reefs of Eilat.
Abstract: Artificial reefs have been suggested as a potential tool for the restoration of marine habitats. In the present study, the fish assemblage established around the oil jetties of Eilat (northern Red Sea, Israel) was compared to those found in three adjacent natural reef habitats: two in a nature reserve (one shallow and one deep) and a third deep site located near the city. Both species richness and fish abundance were found to be significantly higher around the vertical structures of the jetty's pillars than at all three natural sites, with the lowest values at the site closest to the city. The higher species richness at the jetties may be explained by (1) the vertical relief and high complexity of the jetty which offers a variety of niches for both shallow and deep coral reef species, and (2) by the reduction in available niches at the natural sites as a result of coral destruction due to anthropogenic activity. The pronounced difference in fish abundance is attributed mainly to the high seasonal recruitment at the jetty which was much lower at the natural sites. We therefore suggest that vertical structures are more attractive to fish settlement and recruitment than moderately sloped bottoms such as those found at the fringing reefs of Eilat. High similarity (51 to 56%) was found between fish assemblages at the natural sites while relatively low similarity (27 to 37%) was found between the jetty and the natural reefs. The jetty's complex vertical artificial structures can serve as a model for future construction of artificial reefs designed to restore the fish community in areas where the natural reefs have been damaged. It should be taken into account, however, that these do not necessarily mimic the natural environment but may rather establish a community of their own, which is influenced by the spatial orientation and complexity of the structure.
TL;DR: The authors in this paper compare historical trawl surveys from the Mediterranean continental shelf and upper slope of Israel to evaluate the relative abundance and biomass of Indo-Pacific fishes and their impact on diversity and trophic level (TrL).
Abstract: Aim We examine fish invasions in the south-eastern Mediterranean as a model system for the invasibility of open coasts and provide perspectives through a review of global marine fish invasions. Location South-eastern Mediterranean (Levant Sea). Methods We compare historical (1990–1994) and modern (2008–2011) trawl surveys from the Mediterranean continental shelf and upper slope of Israel to evaluate the relative abundance and biomass of Indo-Pacific fishes and their impact on diversity and trophic level (TrL). We examine resultant changes in community composition by both univariate and multivariate analyses, and compliment this study with a critical global review of open coast marine fish invasions. Results A staggering 55 Indo-Pacific fish species have established permanent populations in the Mediterranean in the last 142 years, more than any other marine ecosystem. This process is accelerating with 13 of 27 new arrivals having established in the 21st century alone. Invasive fish biomass and abundance proportions in the shallow open coast have doubled in just two decades and today the Levantine ecosystem is dominated by non-native species. This proliferation has resulted in significant declines of some indigenous species, some to near extirpation levels. Main conclusions Here, we show that non-estuarine ecosystems are much more susceptible to large-scale invasion pressures than previously thought. Our results place invasion in the same category with overexploitation, habitat destruction and pollution, processes normally considered as much more critical perturbations to coastal fish communities. We propose that despite these irreversible alterations, invasions have masked overall TrL changes and diversity declines by replacing native fish with invasives of similar ecological position. As species extirpations increase, we anticipate further declines in indigenous biomass, abundance and diversity in the Mediterranean Sea.
01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: The Mediterranean Sea is a unique body of water as mentioned in this paper, which is a vestige of the Tethys Ocean, meaning that in prehistoric times it was inhabited by tropical biota, and these changes in its environmental conditions naturally occurred over timescales of thousands to millions of years.
Abstract: The Mediterranean Sea is in many ways a unique body of water. It is small, but deep compared to other bodies of water of its size, and for its size (0.82% in surface area of the world oceans and 0.32% in volume) it encompasses an impressive variety of ecosystems. From a biodiversity perspective, it can be considered relatively rich in species. Bianchi and Morri (2000) estimate that more than 8500 macroscopic marine species should live in the Mediterranean Sea, which is 4–18% of the world’s marine species (depending on different estimates of global diversity). This means that it has high species density for its size (Bianchi and Morri 2000). The body of water that is now the Mediterranean Sea went through dramatic changes in its biota through most of its existence. It is a vestige of the Tethys Ocean, meaning that in prehistoric times it was inhabited by tropical biota. After it was squeezed between Eurasia and Africa and cut off from the rest of the Indo-Pacific at the end of the Miocene (ca. 10 million years ago) it slowly lost its tropical characteristics. It was also cut off from the Atlantic Ocean several times throughout its history, eventually becoming a warm-temperate to subtropical body of water once the Straits of Gibraltar opened at the late Pleistocene (ca. 5 million years ago). These changes in its environmental conditions, that were followed by changes in its biota (as evident from its fossil record; Ruggieri 1967; Sorbini 1988; Zaccaria 1968), naturally occurred over timescales of thousands to millions of years. But lately the rate of biotic change has been increasing dramatically. The biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea has been altering at an alarmingly high rate for the past two centuries due to human-mediated arrival of new species, with an apparent acceleration in the rate of recorded invasions in the last four decades of the twentieth century. In this chapter we review the current status of the invasion process in the Mediterranean, examine spatio-temporal patterns of species from three major taxonomic groups of invaders, and explore the ecological and conservation implications of some of the most infamous invasions. Special emphasis is given to the major vector of invasion into the Mediterranean Sea – the Suez Canal, and to lagoons as important hotspots of invasion in the western Mediterranean.
Spanish National Research Council1, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki2, University of Queensland3, Centre national de la recherche scientifique4, University of the Aegean5, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology6, University of Vienna7, PSL Research University8, Marine Institute of Memorial University of Newfoundland9, University of Primorska10, Stanford University11, National Institute of Oceanography, India12, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences13, University of Tartu14
TL;DR: It is shown that a risk-based approach to CEAs decreases complexity, allows for the transparent treatment of uncertainty and streamlines the uptake of scientific outcomes into the science-policy interface, which can help bridging the gap between science and decision-making in ecosystem-based management.
Abstract: Marine ecosystems are increasingly threatened by the cumulative effects of multiple human pressures. Cumulative effect assessments (CEAs) are needed to inform environmental policy and guide ecosystem-based management. Yet, CEAs are inherently complex and seldom linked to real-world management processes. Therefore we propose entrenching CEAs in a risk management process, comprising the steps of risk identification, risk analysis and risk evaluation. We provide guidance to operationalize a risk-based approach to CEAs by describing for each step guiding principles and desired outcomes, scientific challenges and practical solutions. We reviewed the treatment of uncertainty in CEAs and the contribution of different tools and data sources to the implementation of a risk based approach to CEAs. We show that a risk-based approach to CEAs decreases complexity, allows for the transparent treatment of uncertainty and streamlines the uptake of scientific outcomes into the science-policy interface. Hence, its adoption can help bridging the gap between science and decision-making in ecosystem-based management.
TL;DR: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols used xiii 1.
Abstract: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols Used xiii 1. The Importance of Islands 3 2. Area and Number of Speicies 8 3. Further Explanations of the Area-Diversity Pattern 19 4. The Strategy of Colonization 68 5. Invasibility and the Variable Niche 94 6. Stepping Stones and Biotic Exchange 123 7. Evolutionary Changes Following Colonization 145 8. Prospect 181 Glossary 185 References 193 Index 201
01 Jan 2014
30 Apr 1984
TL;DR: A review of the literature on optimal foraging can be found in this article, with a focus on the theoretical developments and the data that permit tests of the predictions, and the authors conclude that the simple models so far formulated are supported by available data and that they are optimistic about the value both now and in the future.
Abstract: Beginning with Emlen (1966) and MacArthur and Pianka (1966) and extending through the last ten years, several authors have sought to predict the foraging behavior of animals by means of mathematical models. These models are very similar,in that they all assume that the fitness of a foraging animal is a function of the efficiency of foraging measured in terms of some "currency" (Schoener, 1971) -usually energy- and that natural selection has resulted in animals that forage so as to maximize this fitness. As a result of these similarities, the models have become known as "optimal foraging models"; and the theory that embodies them, "optimal foraging theory." The situations to which optimal foraging theory has been applied, with the exception of a few recent studies, can be divided into the following four categories: (1) choice by an animal of which food types to eat (i.e., optimal diet); (2) choice of which patch type to feed in (i.e., optimal patch choice); (3) optimal allocation of time to different patches; and (4) optimal patterns and speed of movements. In this review we discuss each of these categories separately, dealing with both the theoretical developments and the data that permit tests of the predictions. The review is selective in the sense that we emphasize studies that either develop testable predictions or that attempt to test predictions in a precise quantitative manner. We also discuss what we see to be some of the future developments in the area of optimal foraging theory and how this theory can be related to other areas of biology. Our general conclusion is that the simple models so far formulated are supported are supported reasonably well by available data and that we are optimistic about the value both now and in the future of optimal foraging theory. We argue, however, that these simple models will requre much modification, espicially to deal with situations that either cannot easily be put into one or another of the above four categories or entail currencies more complicated that just energy.
01 Jan 1944
TL;DR: The only previously known species of Myrsidea from bulbuls, M. warwicki ex Ixos philippinus, is redescribed and sixteen new species are described; they and their type hosts are described.
Abstract: We redescribe the only previously known species of Myrsidea from bulbuls, M. pycnonoti Eichler. Sixteen new species are described; they and their type hosts are: M. phillipsi ex Pycnonotus goiavier goiavier (Scopoli), M. gieferi ex P. goiavier suluensis Mearns, M. kulpai ex P. flavescens Blyth, M. finlaysoni ex P. finlaysoni Strickland, M. kathleenae ex P. cafer (L.), M. warwicki ex Ixos philippinus (J. R. Forster), M. mcclurei ex Microscelis amaurotis (Temminck), M. zeylanici ex P. zeylanicus (Gmelin), M. plumosi ex P. plumosus Blyth, M. eutiloti ex P. eutilotus (Jardine and Selby), M. adamsae ex P. urostictus (Salvadori), M. ochracei ex Criniger ochraceus F. Moore, M. borbonici ex Hypsipetes borbonicus (J. R. Forster), M. johnsoni ex P. atriceps (Temminck), M. palmai ex C. ochraceus, and M. claytoni ex P. eutilotus. A key is provided for the identification of these 17 species.
01 Jan 1981
TL;DR: It is suggested that the reproductive season of certain long—lived, patch—dependent species is moulded by the disturbance regime, and the necessary and vital connection between disturbance which generates spatial pattern and species richness in communities open to invasion is discussed.
Abstract: The mussel Mytilus californianus is a competitive dominant on wave—swept rocky intertidal shores. Mussel beds may exist as extensive monocultures; more often they are an everchanging mosaic of many species which inhabit wave—generated patches or gaps. This paper describes observations and experiments designed to measure the critical parameters of a model of patch birth and death, and to use the model to predict the spatial structure of mussel beds. Most measurements were made at Tatoosh Island, Washington, USA, from 1970—1979. Patch size ranged at birth from a single mussel to 38 m2; the distribution of patch sizes approximates the lognormal. Birth rates varied seasonally and regionally. At Tatoosh the rate of patch formation varied during six winters from 0.4—5.4% of the mussels removed per month. The disturbance regime during the summer and at two mainland sites was 5—10 times less. Annual disturbance patterns tended to be synchronous within 11 sites on one face of Tatoosh over a 10—yr interval, and over larger distances (16 km) along the coastline. The pattern was asynchronous, however, among four Tatoosh localities. Patch birth rate, and mean and maximum size at birth can be used as adequate indices of disturbance. Patch disappearance (death) occurs by three mechanisms. Very small patches disappear almost immediately due to a leaning response of the border mussels (0.2 cm/d). Intermediate—sized patches (<3.0 m2) are eventually obliterated by lateral movement of the peripheral mussels: estimates based on 94 experimental patches yield a mean shrinking rate of 0.05 cm/d from each of two principal dimensions. Depth of the adjacent mussel bed accounts for much of the local variation in closing rate. In very large patches, mussels must recruit as larvae from the plankton. Recovery begins at an average patch age of 26 mo; rate of space occupation, primarily due to individual growth, is 2.0—2.5%/mo. Winter birth rates suggest a mean turnover time (rotation period) for mussel beds varying from 8.1—34.7 yr, depending on the location. The minimal value is in close agreement with both observed and calculated minimal recovery times. Projections of total patch area, based on the model, are accurate to within 5% of the observed. Using a method for determining the age of patches, based on a growth curve of the barnacle Balanus cariosus, the model permits predictions of the age—size structure of the patch population. The model predicts with excellent resolution the distribution of patch area in relation to time since last disturbance. The most detailed models which include size structure within age categories are inconclusive due to small sample size. Predictions are food for large patches, the major determinants of environmental patterns, but cannot deal adequately with smaller patches because of stochastic effects. Colonization data are given in relation to patch age, size and intertidal position. We suggest that the reproductive season of certain long—lived, patch—dependent species is moulded by the disturbance regime. The necessary and vital connection between disturbance which generates spatial pattern and species richness in communities open to invasion is discussed.