scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

Gilles Riveau

Bio: Gilles Riveau is an academic researcher from Pasteur Institute. The author has contributed to research in topics: Antigen & Schistosomiasis. The author has an hindex of 36, co-authored 95 publications receiving 3530 citations. Previous affiliations of Gilles Riveau include university of lille & French Institute of Health and Medical Research.


Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2019
TL;DR: Understanding about the links between emerging infectious diseases and food production, finding strong associations worldwide is synthesized, to address the public health challenge posed by feeding 11 billion people.
Abstract: Infectious diseases are emerging globally at an unprecedented rate while global food demand is projected to increase sharply by 2100. Here, we synthesize the pathways by which projected agricultural expansion and intensification will influence human infectious diseases and how human infectious diseases might likewise affect food production and distribution. Feeding 11 billion people will require substantial increases in crop and animal production that will expand agricultural use of antibiotics, water, pesticides and fertilizer, and contact rates between humans and both wild and domestic animals, all with consequences for the emergence and spread of infectious agents. Indeed, our synthesis of the literature suggests that, since 1940, agricultural drivers were associated with >25% of all - and >50% of zoonotic - infectious diseases that emerged in humans, proportions that will likely increase as agriculture expands and intensifies. We identify agricultural and disease management and policy actions, and additional research, needed to address the public health challenge posed by feeding 11 billion people.

309 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The prevalence of Blastocystis sp.
Abstract: Blastocystis sp. is currently the most common intestinal protist found in human feces and considered an emerging parasite with a worldwide distribution. Because of its potential impact in public health, we reinforced the picture of Blastocystis sp. prevalence and molecular subtype distribution in Africa by performing the first survey of this parasite in Senegal. Stool samples from 93 symptomatic presenting with various gastrointestinal disorders or asymptomatic children living in three villages of the Senegal River Basin were tested for the presence of Blastocystis sp. by non-quantitative and quantitative PCR using primer pairs targeting the SSU rDNA gene. Positive samples were subtyped to investigate the frequency of Blastocystis sp. subtypes in our cohort and the distribution of subtypes in the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups of children. By the use of molecular tools, all 93 samples were found to be positive for Blastocystis sp. indicating a striking parasite prevalence of 100%. Mixed infections by two or three subtypes were identified in eight individuals. Among a total of 103 subtyped isolates, subtype 3 was most abundant (49.5%) followed by subtype 1 (28.2%), subtype 2 (20.4%) and subtype 4 (1.9%). Subtype 3 was dominant in the symptomatic group while subtypes 1 and 2 were detected with equal frequency in both symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. The distribution of subtypes was compared with those available in other African countries and worldwide. Comparison confirmed that subtype 4 is much less frequently detected or absent in Africa while it is commonly found in Europe. Potential sources of Blastocystis sp. infection including human-to-human, zoonotic, and waterborne transmissions were also discussed. The prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in our Senegalese population was the highest prevalence ever recovered worldwide for this parasite by reaching 100%. All cases were caused by subtypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 with a predominance of subtype 3. More than half of the children infected by Blastocystis sp. presented various gastrointestinal disorders. Such high prevalence of blastocystosis in developing countries makes its control a real challenge for public health authorities.

201 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Immunostimulant activities of muramyl dipeptide were retained by its N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-glutaminyl-n-butyl ester derivative, although very large amounts administered intravenously, or even by the very sensitive intracerebroventricular route, did not elicit fever in the rabbit.
Abstract: Immunostimulant activities of muramyl dipeptide (enhancement of specific immune responses and of nonspecific resistance to infection) were retained by its N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-glutaminyl-n-butyl ester derivative, although very large amounts administered intravenously, or even by the very sensitive intracerebroventricular route, did not elicit fever in the rabbit. This analog also appeared to be devoid of other secondary effects which have been observed after administration of muramyl dipeptide.

174 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that a species of river prawn indigenous to the west coast of Africa, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, could offer a low-cost, sustainable form of snail control that, when used in synergy with existing drug distribution campaigns, could reduce or locally eliminate the parasite.
Abstract: Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite’s intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village’s river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis.

147 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recent advances are reported that substantially increase the understanding of the nature of the host innate and adaptive responses to schistosomes and on strategies elaborated by the parasite to manipulate such responses.

144 citations


Cited by
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols used xiii 1.
Abstract: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols Used xiii 1. The Importance of Islands 3 2. Area and Number of Speicies 8 3. Further Explanations of the Area-Diversity Pattern 19 4. The Strategy of Colonization 68 5. Invasibility and the Variable Niche 94 6. Stepping Stones and Biotic Exchange 123 7. Evolutionary Changes Following Colonization 145 8. Prospect 181 Glossary 185 References 193 Index 201

14,171 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG ODN enhance the development of acquired immune responses for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination and protect against lethal challenge with a wide variety of pathogens.
Abstract: Unmethylated CpG motifs are prevalent in bacterial but not vertebrate genomic DNAs. Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing CpG motifs activate host defense mechanisms leading to innate and acquired immune responses. The recognition of CpG motifs requires Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9, which triggers alterations in cellular redox balance and the induction of cell signaling pathways including the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF kappa B. Cells that express TLR-9, which include plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) and B cells, produce Th1-like proinflammatory cytokines, interferons, and chemokines. Certain CpG motifs (CpG-A) are especially potent at activating NK cells and inducing IFN-alpha production by PDCs, while other motifs (CpG-B) are especially potent B cell activators. CpG-induced activation of innate immunity protects against lethal challenge with a wide variety of pathogens, and has therapeutic activity in murine models of cancer and allergy. CpG ODN also enhance the development of acquired immune responses for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination.

2,557 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These studies show that TNF (cachectin) is another endogenous pyrogen which, like IL-1 and IFN-alpha, directly stimulate hypothalamic PGE2 synthesis and is an endogenous inducer ofIL-1.
Abstract: Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (rTNF alpha) injected intravenously into rabbits produces a rapid-onset, monophasic fever indistinguishable from the fever produced by rIL-1. On a weight basis (1 microgram/kg) rTNF alpha and rIL-1 produce the same amount of fever and induce comparable levels of PGE2 in rabbit hypothalamic cells in vitro; like IL-1, TNF fever is blocked by drugs that inhibit cyclooxygenase. At higher doses (10 micrograms/kg) rTNF alpha produces biphasic fevers. The first fever reaches peak elevation 45-55 min after bolus injection and likely represents a direct action on the thermoregulatory center. During the second fever peak (3 h later), a circulating endogenous pyrogen can be shown present using passive transfer of plasma into fresh rabbits. This likely represents the in vivo induction of IL-1. In vitro, rTNF alpha induces the release of IL-1 activity from human mononuclear cells with maximal production observed at 50-100 ng/ml of rTNF alpha. In addition, rTNF alpha and rIFN-gamma have a synergistic effect on IL-1 production. The biological activity of rTNF alpha could be distinguished from IL-1 in three ways: the monophasic pyrogenic activity of rIL-1 was destroyed at 70 degrees C, whereas rTNF alpha remained active; anti-IL-1 neutralized IL-1 but did recognize rTNF alpha or natural cachectin nor neutralize its cytotoxic effect; and unlike IL-1, rTNF alpha was not active in the mitogen-stimulated T cell proliferation assay. The possibility that endotoxin was responsible for rTNF alpha fever and/or the induction of IL-1 was ruled-out in several studies: rTNF alpha produced fever in the endotoxin-resistant C3H/HeJ mice; the IL-1-inducing property of rTNF alpha was destroyed either by heat (70 degrees C) or trypsinization, and was unaffected by polymyxin B; pyrogenic tolerance to daily injections of rTNF alpha did not occur; levels of endotoxin, as determined in the Limulus amebocyte lysate, were below the minimum rabbit pyrogen dose; and these levels of endotoxin were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis for the presence of beta-hydroxymyristic acid. Although rTNF alpha is not active in T cell proliferation assays, it may mimic IL-1 in a T cell assay, since high concentrations of rTNF alpha induced IL-1 from epithelial or macrophagic cells in the thymocyte preparations. These studies show that TNF (cachectin) is another endogenous pyrogen which, like IL-1 and IFN-alpha, directly stimulate hypothalamic PGE2 synthesis. In addition, rTNF alpha is an endogenous inducer of IL-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

1,457 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In addition to malaria, tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus infection, several other infectious diseases are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality as discussed by the authors, in particular 13 tropical diseases that cause disabilities such as blindness and heart failure.
Abstract: In addition to malaria, tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus infection, several other infectious diseases are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. In particular, 13 tropical diseases infect billions of people and cause disabilities such as blindness and heart failure, especially in persons who live in impoverished conditions. This review article describes approaches to the global control of these diseases.

1,373 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: New insights into fundamental helminth biology are accumulating through newly completed genome projects and the nascent application of transgenesis and RNA interference technologies, which should one day translate into a new and robust pipeline of drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines for targeting parasitic worms that infect humans.
Abstract: Helminths are parasitic worms. They are the most common infectious agents of humans in developing countries and produce a global burden of disease that exceeds better-known conditions, including malaria and tuberculosis. As we discuss here, new insights into fundamental helminth biology are accumulating through newly completed genome projects and the nascent application of transgenesis and RNA interference technologies. At the same time, our understanding of the dynamics of the transmission of helminths and the mechanisms of the Th2-type immune responses that are induced by infection with these parasitic worms has increased markedly. Ultimately, these advances in molecular and medical helminth biology should one day translate into a new and robust pipeline of drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines for targeting parasitic worms that infect humans.

1,370 citations