••10 Jul 2017
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the frequent causes of errors in construction contract documents and recommended that the frequent errors identified should always be prevented from occurring if cost and time overrun are to be minimized.
Abstract: The issue of continual poor project performance in the construction industry remains unresolved and there is need for improvement. In view of improving project performance, the study aims at investigating the frequent causes of errors in construction contract documents. The survey research design and mixed research methods were used for the study. The respondents for the study consist of 86 consulting and 98 contracting firms that have been engaged on building projects that is above one floor between 2012 and 2015. Fifty one (51) interviews were also conducted on contractors, project managers and consultants on the projects they were involved and can equally provide necessary information for the study. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20) was used for the analysis of the study. The study found that the frequent causes of the errors in contract documents are frequent design changes by clients, lack of adequate time to prepare documents and design management experience among others. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the causes of errors in contract documents vary from one state to the other. It was also concluded that there is difference in the causes of errors in contract documents based on types of building, services rendered by construction organisations and states in South West, Nigeria. However, there is no significant difference in the causes of errors in contract documents based on procurement method except where there is incomplete documentation or contracting organisations have overlapping activities. The study recommends that the frequent errors identified should always be prevented from occurring if cost and time overrun are to be minimized. Also since most of the causes identified are related to consultants, it was recommended as suggested by interviewees that all designs must go through quality assurance process.Keywords: Building projects, Construction, Contract documents, Errors, project performance
09 Jul 2018
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated human behaviour during fire evacuations in multi-storey residential buildings through a focus on the challenges and obstacles that occupants face and found that occupants remain reluctant to use a lift during evacuation in fire event, irrespective of any signage clearly stating that is appropriate to do so in the context of modern lift technology.
Abstract: Purpose - The paper aims to investigate human behaviour during fire evacuations in multistorey residential buildings through a focus on the challenges and obstacles that occupants face. Any variations in response behaviours that are relevant to the evacuation strategies/plans in the UK context of occupancy typical of multi-storey buildings in large cities. Design/methodology/approach - A literature review was conducted to identify the factors occupants face and also the decision-making of occupants regarding methods of egress. A mixed research method was adopted using interviews and a questionnaire survey. The findings from the interviews and survey are benchmarked against the information gathered from the literature review. Findings - The paper identifies various challenges that occupants face when evacuating a multi-storey residential building. In terms of the decision-making process, the research results evidence that occupants could be given more information on the evacuation procedures within their specific building. The paper also finds that occupants remain reluctant to use a lift during evacuation in fire event, irrespective of any signage clearly stating that is appropriate to do so in the context of modern lift technology. Originality/Value - This paper contributes to the body of knowledge available on the evacuation of multi-storey buildings located in large cities within the UK, outlining potential areas for future research, focused on providing an insight of the behavioural decisions made by the occupants make when evacuating a building in the event of a fire.
29 May 2018
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigate the major causes of design documents' deficiencies in a fast expanding economy, where errors can translate to an adverse impact on the economy, and identify and assess the causes of DDDs for large construction projects from the consultants' perspective.
Abstract: Purpose Design documents’ deficiencies (DDDs) are a major issue that plagues the construction industry in many countries. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the major causes of DDDs in a fast expanding economy, where errors can translate to an adverse impact on the economy. This paper aims to identify and assess the causes of DDDs for large construction projects from the consultants’ perspective. Design/methodology/approach In total, 20 causes of DDDs were shortlisted through an extensive literature survey. In total, 37 consultants based in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia participated in the study. The respondents were requested to provide their opinion with respect to the relative importance of the identified causes. The result of their responses was then used to rank the causes. Findings Based on their significance indices, the most significant causes of DDDs were “assigning design tasks to designers who lack work experience,” “team members’ communication skills,” “the level and quality of the design professional’s education,” “cross-disciplinary coordination,” “effective design team,” and “lack of knowledge transfer mechanism.” Practical implications Recommendations were provided to mitigate the issues of DDDs. It is envisioned that through a better understanding of the major causes of DDDs, design firms will be better positioned to recognize DDDs’ causes and establish appropriate measures for reducing their occurrence. The findings of this paper are beneficial to all project stakeholders, including design firms, clients, contractors, and end users. Originality/value This paper contributes to the literature by providing an assessment of the various causes of DDDs in the context of a rapidly expanding economy, where any inefficiency can lead to massive losses to the economy.
01 Feb 2021
TL;DR: In this paper, a questionnaire survey to identify the significance of key quality variables was carried out and a total of 139 variables on design documentation quality were used to determine the level of significance.
Abstract: There are numerous studies on design documentation variables without efforts to evaluate their level of importance. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of these variables towards improving design documentation quality. A questionnaire survey to identify the significance of key quality variables was carried out. A total of 139 variables on design documentation quality were used. The mean score and Standard deviation of each factor were used to determine the level of significance. Based on responses from 112 construction industry players, the significance of each variable is determined. Design documentation is fit for purpose was considered highly important as an attribute while Inadequate and Insufficient documentation was ranked highest for quality influential factors. The findings will provide valuable data to stakeholders, researchers, and academics and will help enhance project performance because professionals will be aware of key factors that can influence design documentation quality. It will also aid in providing solution to sustainable infrastructure design and delivery challenges in the industry. The study offers a pragmatic data and empirical evidence to expand knowledge on design documentation quality. It is the first of its kind that explored the significance of design documentation quality variables based on the outcome of a meta-synthesis.
14 Jun 2018
TL;DR: The study found that poor working drawing and lack of coordination among design documents are the major causes of variation and variation costs could be minimized if government policies, aimed at ensuring proper contract documentation, were put in place, and construction professionals were limited to their core roles on construction projects.
Abstract: Design errors and variations are inherently part of many construction projects and require deliberate effort to combat. The literature reviewed indicates that empirical studies of the cost effect of design-error-induced variations are scarce. This study investigates the causes of variation on building projects, the frequent design errors that lead to variation, the effects of design error on variation cost, and solutions to design-error-induced variation in design documents. A mixed methods research (interviews and 30 case study building projects) was used to collect the necessary data for the study. Interviews were conducted with 25 construction professionals to obtain information on the causes of variation on building projects and solutions to design-error-induced variation on building construction projects. Thirty documents including valuation breakdowns and variation/change order documents were obtained by convenience sampling technique and used for the extraction of design errors leading to variations and their associated costs. The data was analysed with frequencies and percentages. The study found that poor working drawing and lack of coordination among design documents are the major causes of variation. Errors in design calculations and wrong descriptions in specifications are prominent design errors that led to variation. Design errors account for roughly 36% of the variation cost of building projects. Structural and architectural drawings contain the largest number of errors among design documents, but electrical and mechanical documents have the highest contribution to variation cost. The study concluded that variation costs could be minimized if government policies, aimed at ensuring proper contract documentation, were put in place, and construction professionals were limited to their core roles on construction projects. Rechecking of design documents prior to use, knowledge sharing, and use of computer programs were among the recommended solutions to design-error-induced variation in project documents. Keywords: Construction projects, cost of error, design documents, design error, variation cost, valuation documents
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors propose that proper design documents are crucial to the success of construction projects and that poor design documents can have a range of adverse effects on various construction project stakeholder.
Abstract: Properly prepared design documents are crucial to the success of construction projects. Poor design documents can have a range of adverse effects on various construction project stakeholder...