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Graeme Moad

Other affiliations: University of New South Wales, Kyoto University, DuPont  ...read more
Bio: Graeme Moad is an academic researcher from Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. The author has contributed to research in topics: Chain transfer & Radical polymerization. The author has an hindex of 69, co-authored 290 publications receiving 28784 citations. Previous affiliations of Graeme Moad include University of New South Wales & Kyoto University.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors proposed a reversible additive-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) method for living free-radical polymerization, which can be used with a wide range of monomers and reaction conditions and in each case it provides controlled molecular weight polymers with very narrow polydispersities.
Abstract: mechanism involves Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer, and we have designated the process the RAFT polymerization. What distinguishes RAFT polymerization from all other methods of controlled/living free-radical polymerization is that it can be used with a wide range of monomers and reaction conditions and in each case it provides controlled molecular weight polymers with very narrow polydispersities (usually <1.2; sometimes <1.1). Living polymerization processes offer many benefits. These include the ability to control molecular weight and polydispersity and to prepare block copolymers and other polymers of complex architecturesmaterials which are not readily synthesized using other methodologies. Therefore, one can understand the current drive to develop a truly effective process which would combine the virtues of living polymerization with versatility and convenience of free-radical polymerization.2-4 However, existing processes described under the banner “living free-radical polymerization” suffer from a number of disadvantages. In particular, they may be applicable to only a limited range of monomers, require reagents that are expensive or difficult to remove, require special polymerization conditions (e.g. high reaction temperatures), and/or show sensitivity to acid or protic monomers. These factors have provided the impetus to search for new and better methods. There are three principal mechanisms that have been put forward to achieve living free-radical polymerization.2,5 The first is polymerization with reversible termination by coupling. Currently, the best example in this class is alkoxyamine-initiated or nitroxidemediated polymerization as first described by Rizzardo et al.6,7 and recently exploited by a number of groups in syntheses of narrow polydispersity polystyrene and related materials.4,8 The second mechanism is radical polymerization with reversible termination by ligand transfer to a metal complex (usually abbreviated as ATRP).9,10 This method has been successfully applied to the polymerization of various acrylic and styrenic monomers. The third mechanism for achieving living character is free-radical polymerization with reversible chain transfer (also termed degenerative chain transfer2). A simplified mechanism for this process is shown in

4,561 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of living radical polymerization achieved with thiocarbonylthio compounds by a mechanism of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) is presented in this article.
Abstract: This paper presents a review of living radical polymerization achieved with thiocarbonylthio compounds [ZC(=S)SR] by a mechanism of reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT). Since we first introduced the technique in 1998, the number of papers and patents on the RAFT process has increased exponentially as the technique has proved to be one of the most versatile for the provision of polymers of well defined architecture. The factors influencing the effectiveness of RAFT agents and outcome of RAFT polymerization are detailed. With this insight, guidelines are presented on how to conduct RAFT and choose RAFT agents to achieve particular structures. A survey is provided of the current scope and applications of the RAFT process in the synthesis of well defined homo-, gradient, diblock, triblock, and star polymers, as well as more complex architectures including microgels and polymer brushes.

2,127 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors provides a third update to the review of reversible deactivation radical polymerization (RDRP) achieved with thiocarbonylthio compounds (ZC(S)SR) by a mechanism of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) that was published in June 2005.
Abstract: This paper provides a third update to the review of reversible deactivation radical polymerization (RDRP) achieved with thiocarbonylthio compounds (ZC(=S)SR) by a mechanism of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) that was published in June 2005 (Aust. J. Chem. 2005, 58, 379). The first update was published in November 2006 (Aust. J. Chem. 2006, 59, 669) and the second in December 2009 (Aust. J. Chem. 2009, 62, 1402). This review cites over 700 publications that appeared during the period mid 2009 to early 2012 covering various aspects of RAFT polymerization which include reagent synthesis and properties, kinetics and mechanism of polymerization, novel polymer syntheses, and a diverse range of applications. This period has witnessed further significant developments, particularly in the areas of novel RAFT agents, techniques for end-group transformation, the production of micro/nanoparticles and modified surfaces, and biopolymer conjugates both for therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

1,612 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
03 Mar 2008-Polymer
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the development of addition-fragmentation chain transfer agents and related ring-opening monomers highlighting recent innovation in these areas is presented, including dithioesters, trithiocarbonates, dithioco-baramates and xanthates.

1,309 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, free radical polymerization with reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization) is discussed with a view to answering the following questions: (a) How living is RAFT polymerization? (b) What controls the activity of thiocarbonylthio compounds in RAFT polymers, and (c) How do rates of polymerization differ from those of conventional radical polymerisation? (d) Can RAFT agents be used in emulsion polymerization; and (e) Retardation, observed when high concentra-
Abstract: Free radical polymerization with reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization) is discussed with a view to answering the following questions: (a) How living is RAFT polymerization? (b) What controls the activity of thiocarbonylthio compounds in RAFT polymeriza- tion? (c) How do rates of polymerization differ from those of conventional radical polymerization? (d) Can RAFT agents be used in emulsion polymerization? Retardation, observed when high concentra- tions of certain RAFT agents are used and in the early stages of emulsion polymerization, and how to overcome it by appropriate choice of reaction conditions, are considered in detail. Examples of the use of thiocarbonylthio RAFT agents in emulsion and miniemulsion polymerization are provided. # 2000 Society of Chemical Industry

803 citations


Cited by
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10 Mar 1970

8,159 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors proposed a reversible additive-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) method for living free-radical polymerization, which can be used with a wide range of monomers and reaction conditions and in each case it provides controlled molecular weight polymers with very narrow polydispersities.
Abstract: mechanism involves Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer, and we have designated the process the RAFT polymerization. What distinguishes RAFT polymerization from all other methods of controlled/living free-radical polymerization is that it can be used with a wide range of monomers and reaction conditions and in each case it provides controlled molecular weight polymers with very narrow polydispersities (usually <1.2; sometimes <1.1). Living polymerization processes offer many benefits. These include the ability to control molecular weight and polydispersity and to prepare block copolymers and other polymers of complex architecturesmaterials which are not readily synthesized using other methodologies. Therefore, one can understand the current drive to develop a truly effective process which would combine the virtues of living polymerization with versatility and convenience of free-radical polymerization.2-4 However, existing processes described under the banner “living free-radical polymerization” suffer from a number of disadvantages. In particular, they may be applicable to only a limited range of monomers, require reagents that are expensive or difficult to remove, require special polymerization conditions (e.g. high reaction temperatures), and/or show sensitivity to acid or protic monomers. These factors have provided the impetus to search for new and better methods. There are three principal mechanisms that have been put forward to achieve living free-radical polymerization.2,5 The first is polymerization with reversible termination by coupling. Currently, the best example in this class is alkoxyamine-initiated or nitroxidemediated polymerization as first described by Rizzardo et al.6,7 and recently exploited by a number of groups in syntheses of narrow polydispersity polystyrene and related materials.4,8 The second mechanism is radical polymerization with reversible termination by ligand transfer to a metal complex (usually abbreviated as ATRP).9,10 This method has been successfully applied to the polymerization of various acrylic and styrenic monomers. The third mechanism for achieving living character is free-radical polymerization with reversible chain transfer (also termed degenerative chain transfer2). A simplified mechanism for this process is shown in

4,561 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Metal Organic Frameworks in Biomedicine Patricia Horcajada, Ruxandra Gref, Tarek Baati, Phoebe K. Allan, Guillaume Maurin, Patrick Couvreur, G erard F erey, Russell E. Morris, and Christian Serre.
Abstract: Metal Organic Frameworks in Biomedicine Patricia Horcajada,* Ruxandra Gref, Tarek Baati, Phoebe K. Allan, Guillaume Maurin, Patrick Couvreur, G erard F erey, Russell E. Morris, and Christian Serre* Institut Lavoisier, UMR CNRS 8180, Universit e de Versailles St-Quentin en Yvelines, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex, France Facult e de Pharmacie, UMR CNRS 8612, Universit e Paris-Sud, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex, France Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, UMR CNRS 5253, Universit e Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier cedex 05, France EaStChem School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews Purdie Building, St Andrews, KY16 9ST U.K.

3,400 citations