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Graham Lyons

Bio: Graham Lyons is an academic researcher from University of Adelaide. The author has contributed to research in topics: Biofortification & Population. The author has an hindex of 23, co-authored 48 publications receiving 1954 citations. Previous affiliations of Graham Lyons include Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation & South Australian Research and Development Institute.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is now an enormous wastage of selenium associated with large-scale mining and industrial processing, and it is recommended that this must be changed and that much of the seenium that is extracted should be stockpiled for use as a nutrient by future generations.
Abstract: The world's rare selenium resources need to be managed carefully. Selenium is extracted as a by-product of copper mining and there are no deposits that can be mined for selenium alone. Selenium has unique properties as a semi-conductor, making it of special value to industry, but it is also an essential nutrient for humans and animals and may promote plant growth and quality. Selenium deficiency is regarded as a major health problem for 0.5 to 1 billion people worldwide, while an even larger number may consume less selenium than required for optimal protection against cancer, cardiovascular diseases and severe infectious diseases including HIV disease. Efficient recycling of selenium is difficult. Selenium is added in some commercial fertilizers, but only a small proportion is taken up by plants and much of the remainder is lost for future utilization. Large biofortification programmes with selenium added to commercial fertilizers may therefore be a fortification method that is too wasteful to be applied to large areas of our planet. Direct addition of selenium compounds to food (process fortification) can be undertaken by the food industry. If selenomethionine is added directly to food, however, oxidation due to heat processing needs to be avoided. New ways to biofortify food products are needed, and it is generally observed that there is less wastage if selenium is added late in the production chain rather than early. On these bases we have proposed adding selenium-enriched, sprouted cereal grain during food processing as an efficient way to introduce this nutrient into deficient diets. Selenium is a non-renewable resource. There is now an enormous wastage of selenium associated with large-scale mining and industrial processing. We recommend that this must be changed and that much of the selenium that is extracted should be stockpiled for use as a nutrient by future generations.

227 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Before recommending large-scale fortification of the food supply with Se, it will be necessary to await the results of current intervention studies with Se on cancer, HIV and AIDS, and asthma.
Abstract: The metalloid Se is ubiquitous in soils, but exists mainly in insoluble forms in high-Fe, low-pH and certain leached soils, and hence is often of limited availability to plants. Consequently, it is often supplied by plants to animals and human consumers at levels too low for optimum health. Se deficiency and suboptimality are manifested in populations as increased rates of thyroid dysfunction, cancer, severe viral diseases, cardiovascular disease and various inflammatory conditions. Se deficiency probably affects at least a billion individuals. Optimal cancer protection appears to require a supra-nutritional Se intake, and involves several mechanisms, which include promotion of apoptosis and inhibition of neo-angiogenesis. Evidence suggests that in some regions Se is declining in the food chain, and new strategies to increase its intake are required. These could include education to increase consumption of higher-Se foods, individual supplementation, food fortification, supplementation of livestock, Se fertilisation of crops and plant breeding for enhanced Se accumulation. Se levels in Australian residents and wheat appear to be above the global estimated mean. Wheat is estimated to supply nearly half the Se utilised by most Australians. Increasing the Se content of wheat represents a food systems approach that would increase population intake, with consequent probable improvement in public health and large health cost savings. The strategies that show most promise to achieve this are biofortification by Se fertilisation and breeding wheat varieties that are more efficient at increasing grain Se density. Research is needed in Australia to determine the most cost-effective fertilisation methods, and to determine the extent of genetic variability for grain Se accumulation. Before recommending large-scale fortification of the food supply with Se, it will be necessary to await the results of current intervention studies with Se on cancer, HIV and AIDS, and asthma.

190 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study detected no significant genotypic variation in grain Se density among modern commercial bread or durum wheat, triticale or barley varieties, but the diploid wheat, Aegilops tauschii and rye were 42% and 35% higher, respectively, ingrain Se concentration than other cereals in separate field trials, and, in a hydroponic trial, rye was 40% higher in foliar Se content than two wheat landraces.
Abstract: Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for humans and animals, with antioxidant, anti-cancer and anti-viral effects, and wheat is an important dietary source of this element. In this study, surveys of Se concentration in grain of ancestral and wild relatives of wheat, wheat landrace accessions, populations, and commercial cultivars grown in Mexico and Australia were conducted. Cultivars were also grown under the same conditions to assess genotypic variation in Se density. Eleven data sets were reviewed with the aim of assessing the comparative worth of breeding compared with fertilising as a strategy to improve Se intake in human populations. Surveys and field trials that included diverse wheat germplasm as well as other cereals found grain Se concentrations in the range 5–720μgkg−1, but much of this variation was associated with spatial variation in soil selenium. This study detected no significant genotypic variation in grain Se density among modern commercial bread or durum wheat, triticale or barley varieties. However, the diploid wheat, Aegilops tauschii and rye were 42% and 35% higher, respectively, in grain Se concentration than other cereals in separate field trials, and, in a hydroponic trial, rye was 40% higher in foliar Se content than two wheat landraces. While genotypic differences may exist in modern wheat varieties, they are likely to be small in comparison with background soil variation, at least in Australia and Mexico. Field sites that are spatially very uniform in available soil Se would be needed to allow comparison of grain Se concentration and content in order to assess genotypic variation.

185 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although there was no change in total biomass, Se treatment was associated with a 43% increase in seed production and the Se-treated Brassica plants had higher total respiratory activity in leaves and flowers, which may have contributed to higher seed production.
Abstract: Selenium (Se) is essential for humans and animals but is not considered to be essential for higher plants. Although researchers have found increases in vegetative growth due to fertiliser Se, there has been no definitive evidence to date of increased reproductive capacity, in terms of seed production and seed viability. The aim of this study was to evaluate seed production and growth responses to a low dose of Se (as sodium selenite, added to solution culture) compared to very low-Se controls in fast-cycling Brassica rapa L. Although there was no change in total biomass, Se treatment was associated with a 43% increase in seed production. The Se-treated Brassica plants had higher total respiratory activity in leaves and flowers, which may have contributed to higher seed production. This study provides additional evidence for a beneficial role for Se in higher plants.

181 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, field trials were conducted to investigate the bio-fortification of micronutrients in the edible parts of winter wheat, maize, soybean, potato, canola, and cabbage.
Abstract: Micronutrient malnutrition among humans is typically caused by micronutrient deficiency in soils and then staple food crops grown on these soils. In this study, field trials were conducted to investigate the biofortification of micronutrients in the edible parts of winter wheat, maize, soybean, potato, canola, and cabbage. Fertilizers of Se, Zn and I were applied to soil independently or together, while Se and Zn were sprayed as solution on winter wheat in another part of the trials. Selenium, when applied to the soil in the form of sodium selenate, whether alone or combined with Zn and/or I, was effective in increasing Se to around target levels in all of the tested crops. Selenium as sodium selenite was effective as a foliar application to winter wheat, increasing it from 25 to 312 µg kg -1 in wheat grain with 60 g Se ha -1. For Zn, soil-applied zinc sulphate was only found to be effective for increasing the Zn concentration in cabbage leaf and canola seed, with 35 and 61 mg kg -1 , respectively, while foliar zinc sulphate application was effective in biofortifying winter wheat, increasing grain Zn from 20 to 30 mg kg -1 . While for I, soilapplied potassium iodate was only effective in increasing I concentration in cabbage leaf, and biofortification of the other crops was not possible. The enhancements of Se, Zn, and I concentration resulting from either the single or combined application of microelement fertilizers were similar. Therefore, agronomic biofortification of edible parts of various food crops with Zn, Se, and I can be an effective way to increase micronutrient concentrations, and the effectiveness depends on crop species, fertilizer forms and application methods.

103 citations


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Book
01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: In this article, the authors defined the sources of heavy metals and metalloids in Soils and derived methods for the determination of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in soil.
Abstract: Preface.- Contributors.- List of Abbreviations.- Section 1: Basic Principles: Introduction.-Sources of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soils.- Chemistry of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soils.- Methods for the Determination of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soils.- Effects of Heavy Metals and Metalloids on Soil Organisms.- Soil-Plant Relationships of Heavy Metals and Metalloids.- Heavy Metals and Metalloids as Micronutrients for Plants and Animals.-Critical Loads of Heavy Metals for Soils.- Section 2: Key Heavy Metals And Metalloids: Arsenic.- Cadmium.- Chromium and Nickel.- Cobalt and Manganese.- Copper.-Lead.- Mercury.- Selenium.- Zinc.- Section 3: Other Heavy Metals And Metalloids Of Potential Environmental Significance: Antimony.- Barium.- Gold.- Molybdenum.- Silver.- Thallium.- Tin.- Tungsten.- Uranium.- Vanadium.- Glossary of Specialized Terms.- Index.

1,684 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors review aspects of soil science, plant physiology and genetics underpinning crop bio-fortification strategies, as well as agronomic and genetic approaches currently taken to biofortify food crops with the mineral elements most commonly lacking in human diets: iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iodine (I) and selenium (Se).
Abstract: Summary The diets of over two-thirds of the world's population lack one or more essential mineral elements. This can be remedied through dietary diversification, mineral supplementation, food fortification, or increasing the concentrations and/or bioavailability of mineral elements in produce (biofortification). This article reviews aspects of soil science, plant physiology and genetics underpinning crop biofortification strategies, as well as agronomic and genetic approaches currently taken to biofortify food crops with the mineral elements most commonly lacking in human diets: iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iodine (I) and selenium (Se). Two complementary approaches have been successfully adopted to increase the concentrations of bioavailable mineral elements in food crops. First, agronomic approaches optimizing the application of mineral fertilizers and/or improving the solubilization and mobilization of mineral elements in the soil have been implemented. Secondly, crops have been developed with: increased abilities to acquire mineral elements and accumulate them in edible tissues; increased concentrations of ‘promoter’ substances, such as ascorbate, β-carotene and cysteine-rich polypeptides which stimulate the absorption of essential mineral elements by the gut; and reduced concentrations of ‘antinutrients’, such as oxalate, polyphenolics or phytate, which interfere with their absorption. These approaches are addressing mineral malnutrition in humans globally.

1,677 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although technical challenges limit the amount of bioavailable iron compounds that can be used in food fortification, studies show that iron fortification can be an effective strategy against nutritional iron deficiency.

1,192 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The relationships between selenium intake/status and health, or risk of disease, are complex but require elucidation to inform clinical practice, to refine dietary recommendations, and to develop effective public health policies.
Abstract: This review covers current knowledge of selenium in the environment, dietary intakes, metabolism and status, functions in the body, thyroid hormone metabolism, antioxidant defense systems and oxidative metabolism, and the immune system. Selenium toxicity and links between deficiency and Keshan disease and Kashin-Beck disease are described. The relationships between selenium intake/status and various health outcomes, in particular gastrointestinal and prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and male fertility, are reviewed, and recent developments in genetics of selenoproteins are outlined. The rationale behind current dietary reference intakes of selenium is explained, and examples of differences between countries and/or expert bodies are given. Throughout the review, gaps in knowledge and research requirements are identified. More research is needed to improve our understanding of selenium metabolism and requirements for optimal health. Functions of the majority of the selenoproteins await characterization, the mechanism of absorption has yet to be identified, measures of status need to be developed, and effects of genotype on metabolism require further investigation. The relationships between selenium intake/status and health, or risk of disease, are complex but require elucidation to inform clinical practice, to refine dietary recommendations, and to develop effective public health policies.

1,034 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The wealth of knowledge currently available that best explains the formation of these important nuclear anomalies that are commonly seen in cancer and are indicative of genome damage events that could increase the risk of developmental and degenerative diseases are summarized.
Abstract: Micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear anomalies such as nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) are biomarkers of genotoxic events and chromosomal instability. These genome damage events can be measured simultaneously in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMNcyt) assay. The molecular mechanisms leading to these events have been investigated over the past two decades using molecular probes and genetically engineered cells. In this brief review, we summarise the wealth of knowledge currently available that best explains the formation of these important nuclear anomalies that are commonly seen in cancer and are indicative of genome damage events that could increase the risk of developmental and degenerative diseases. MN can originate during anaphase from lagging acentric chromosome or chromatid fragments caused by misrepair of DNA breaks or unrepaired DNA breaks. Malsegregation of whole chromosomes at anaphase may also lead to MN formation as a result of hypomethylation of repeat sequences in centromeric and pericentromeric DNA, defects in kinetochore proteins or assembly, dysfunctional spindle and defective anaphase checkpoint genes. NPB originate from dicentric chromosomes, which may occur due to misrepair of DNA breaks, telomere end fusions, and could also be observed when defective separation of sister chromatids at anaphase occurs due to failure of decatenation. NBUD represent the process of elimination of amplified DNA, DNA repair complexes and possibly excess chromosomes from aneuploid cells.

982 citations