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Graham T. Reed

Other affiliations: University of Surrey, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Intel  ...read more
Bio: Graham T. Reed is an academic researcher from University of Southampton. The author has contributed to research in topics: Silicon photonics & Photonics. The author has an hindex of 46, co-authored 479 publications receiving 12801 citations. Previous affiliations of Graham T. Reed include University of Surrey & Shanghai Jiao Tong University.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The techniques that have, and will, be used to implement silicon optical modulators, as well as the outlook for these devices, and the candidate solutions of the future are discussed.
Abstract: Optical technology is poised to revolutionize short-reach interconnects. The leading candidate technology is silicon photonics, and the workhorse of such an interconnect is the optical modulator. Modulators have been improved dramatically in recent years, with a notable increase in bandwidth from the megahertz to the multigigahertz regime in just over half a decade. However, the demands of optical interconnects are significant, and many questions remain unanswered as to whether silicon can meet the required performance metrics. Minimizing metrics such as the device footprint and energy requirement per bit, while also maximizing bandwidth and modulation depth, is non-trivial. All of this must be achieved within an acceptable thermal tolerance and optical spectral width using CMOS-compatible fabrication processes. This Review discusses the techniques that have been (and will continue to be) used to implement silicon optical modulators, as well as providing an outlook for these devices and the candidate solutions of the future.

2,110 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The silicon chip has been the mainstay of the electronics industry for the last 40 years and has revolutionized the way the world operates as mentioned in this paper, however, any optical solution must be based on low-cost technologies if it is to be applied to the mass market.
Abstract: The silicon chip has been the mainstay of the electronics industry for the last 40 years and has revolutionized the way the world operates. Today, a silicon chip the size of a fingernail contains nearly 1 billion transistors and has the computing power that only a decade ago would take up an entire room of servers. As the relentless pursuit of Moore's law continues, and Internet-based communication continues to grow, the bandwidth demands needed to feed these devices will continue to increase and push the limits of copper-based signaling technologies. These signaling limitations will necessitate optical-based solutions. However, any optical solution must be based on low-cost technologies if it is to be applied to the mass market. Silicon photonics, mainly based on SOI technology, has recently attracted a great deal of attention. Recent advances and breakthroughs in silicon photonic device performance have shown that silicon can be considered a material onto which one can build optical devices. While significant efforts are needed to improve device performance and commercialize these technologies, progress is moving at a rapid rate. More research in the area of integration, both photonic and electronic, is needed. The future is looking bright. Silicon photonics could provide low-cost opto-electronic solutions for applications ranging from telecommunications down to chip-to-chip interconnects, as well as emerging areas such as optical sensing technology and biomedical applications. The ability to utilize existing CMOS infrastructure and manufacture these silicon photonic devices in the same facilities that today produce electronics could enable low-cost optical devices, and in the future, revolutionize optical communications

1,479 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide an overview and outlook for the silicon waveguide platform, optical sources, optical modulators, photodetectors, integration approaches, packaging, applications of silicon photonics and approaches required to satisfy applications at mid-infrared wavelengths.
Abstract: Silicon photonics research can be dated back to the 1980s. However, the previous decade has witnessed an explosive growth in the field. Silicon photonics is a disruptive technology that is poised to revolutionize a number of application areas, for example, data centers, high-performance computing and sensing. The key driving force behind silicon photonics is the ability to use CMOS-like fabrication resulting in high-volume production at low cost. This is a key enabling factor for bringing photonics to a range of technology areas where the costs of implementation using traditional photonic elements such as those used for the telecommunications industry would be prohibitive. Silicon does however have a number of shortcomings as a photonic material. In its basic form it is not an ideal material in which to produce light sources, optical modulators or photodetectors for example. A wealth of research effort from both academia and industry in recent years has fueled the demonstration of multiple solutions to these and other problems, and as time progresses new approaches are increasingly being conceived. It is clear that silicon photonics has a bright future. However, with a growing number of approaches available, what will the silicon photonic integrated circuit of the future look like? This roadmap on silicon photonics delves into the different technology and application areas of the field giving an insight into the state-of-the-art as well as current and future challenges faced by researchers worldwide. Contributions authored by experts from both industry and academia provide an overview and outlook for the silicon waveguide platform, optical sources, optical modulators, photodetectors, integration approaches, packaging, applications of silicon photonics and approaches required to satisfy applications at mid-infrared wavelengths. Advances in science and technology required to meet challenges faced by the field in each of these areas are also addressed together with predictions of where the field is destined to reach.

939 citations

Book
05 Mar 2004
TL;DR: In this article, the basics of Guided Waves are discussed and a selection of photonic devices are presented. But the authors focus on the polarisation-dependent losses of waveguide devices and do not consider the effect of light-emitting devices.
Abstract: About the Authors.Foreword.Acknowledgements.1. Fundamentals.2. The Basics of Guided Waves.3. Characteristics of Optical Fibres for Communications.4. Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Photonics.5. Fabrication of Silicon Waveguide Devices.6. A Selection of Photonic Devices.7. Polarisation-dependent Losses: Issues for Consideration.8. Prospects for Silicon Light-emitting Devices.Index.

502 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented the first optical modulation at 50 Gb/s with a 3.1dB extinction ratio obtained from carrier depletion based phase shifter incorporated in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer.
Abstract: Optical modulators formed in silicon are the keystone to many low cost optical applications. Increasing the data rate of the modulator benefits the efficiency of channel usage and decreases power consumption per bit of data. Silicon-based modulators which operate via carrier depletion have to the present been demonstrated at data rates up to 40 Gb/s; however, here we present for the first time optical modulation at 50 Gb/s with a 3.1-dB extinction ratio obtained from carrier depletion based phase shifter incorporated in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A corresponding optical insertion loss of approximately 7.4 dB is measured.

413 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
11 Oct 2012-Nature
TL;DR: This work reviews recent progress in graphene research and in the development of production methods, and critically analyse the feasibility of various graphene applications.
Abstract: Recent years have witnessed many breakthroughs in research on graphene (the first two-dimensional atomic crystal) as well as a significant advance in the mass production of this material. This one-atom-thick fabric of carbon uniquely combines extreme mechanical strength, exceptionally high electronic and thermal conductivities, impermeability to gases, as well as many other supreme properties, all of which make it highly attractive for numerous applications. Here we review recent progress in graphene research and in the development of production methods, and critically analyse the feasibility of various graphene applications.

7,987 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
02 Jun 2011-Nature
TL;DR: Graphene-based optical modulation mechanism, with combined advantages of compact footprint, low operation voltage and ultrafast modulation speed across a broad range of wavelengths, can enable novel architectures for on-chip optical communications.
Abstract: Graphene, the single-atom-thick form of carbon, holds promise for many applications, notably in electronics where it can complement or be integrated with silicon-based devices. Intense efforts have been devoted to develop a key enabling device, a broadband, fast optical modulator with a small device footprint. Now Liu et al. demonstrate an exciting new possibility for graphene in the area of on-chip optical communication: a graphene-based optical modulator integrated with a silicon chip. This new device relies on the electrical tuning of the Fermi level of the graphene sheet, and achieves modulation of guided light at frequencies over 1 gigahertz, together with a broad operating spectrum. At just 25 square micrometres in area, it is one of the smallest of its type. Integrated optical modulators with high modulation speed, small footprint and large optical bandwidth are poised to be the enabling devices for on-chip optical interconnects1,2. Semiconductor modulators have therefore been heavily researched over the past few years. However, the device footprint of silicon-based modulators is of the order of millimetres, owing to its weak electro-optical properties3. Germanium and compound semiconductors, on the other hand, face the major challenge of integration with existing silicon electronics and photonics platforms4,5,6. Integrating silicon modulators with high-quality-factor optical resonators increases the modulation strength, but these devices suffer from intrinsic narrow bandwidth and require sophisticated optical design; they also have stringent fabrication requirements and limited temperature tolerances7. Finding a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible material with adequate modulation speed and strength has therefore become a task of not only scientific interest, but also industrial importance. Here we experimentally demonstrate a broadband, high-speed, waveguide-integrated electroabsorption modulator based on monolayer graphene. By electrically tuning the Fermi level of the graphene sheet, we demonstrate modulation of the guided light at frequencies over 1 GHz, together with a broad operation spectrum that ranges from 1.35 to 1.6 µm under ambient conditions. The high modulation efficiency of graphene results in an active device area of merely 25 µm2, which is among the smallest to date. This graphene-based optical modulation mechanism, with combined advantages of compact footprint, low operation voltage and ultrafast modulation speed across a broad range of wavelengths, can enable novel architectures for on-chip optical communications.

3,105 citations

Proceedings Article
01 Jan 1999
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe photonic crystals as the analogy between electron waves in crystals and the light waves in artificial periodic dielectric structures, and the interest in periodic structures has been stimulated by the fast development of semiconductor technology that now allows the fabrication of artificial structures, whose period is comparable with the wavelength of light in the visible and infrared ranges.
Abstract: The term photonic crystals appears because of the analogy between electron waves in crystals and the light waves in artificial periodic dielectric structures. During the recent years the investigation of one-, two-and three-dimensional periodic structures has attracted a widespread attention of the world optics community because of great potentiality of such structures in advanced applied optical fields. The interest in periodic structures has been stimulated by the fast development of semiconductor technology that now allows the fabrication of artificial structures, whose period is comparable with the wavelength of light in the visible and infrared ranges.

2,722 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
19 May 2005-Nature
TL;DR: Electro-optic modulators are one of the most critical components in optoelectronic integration, and decreasing their size may enable novel chip architectures, and here a high-speed electro-optical modulator in compact silicon structures is experimentally demonstrated.
Abstract: Metal interconnections are expected to become the limiting factor for the performance of electronic systems as transistors continue to shrink in size. Replacing them by optical interconnections, at different levels ranging from rack-to-rack down to chip-to-chip and intra-chip interconnections, could provide the low power dissipation, low latencies and high bandwidths that are needed. The implementation of optical interconnections relies on the development of micro-optical devices that are integrated with the microelectronics on chips. Recent demonstrations of silicon low-loss waveguides, light emitters, amplifiers and lasers approach this goal, but a small silicon electro-optic modulator with a size small enough for chip-scale integration has not yet been demonstrated. Here we experimentally demonstrate a high-speed electro-optical modulator in compact silicon structures. The modulator is based on a resonant light-confining structure that enhances the sensitivity of light to small changes in refractive index of the silicon and also enables high-speed operation. The modulator is 12 micrometres in diameter, three orders of magnitude smaller than previously demonstrated. Electro-optic modulators are one of the most critical components in optoelectronic integration, and decreasing their size may enable novel chip architectures.

2,336 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The techniques that have, and will, be used to implement silicon optical modulators, as well as the outlook for these devices, and the candidate solutions of the future are discussed.
Abstract: Optical technology is poised to revolutionize short-reach interconnects. The leading candidate technology is silicon photonics, and the workhorse of such an interconnect is the optical modulator. Modulators have been improved dramatically in recent years, with a notable increase in bandwidth from the megahertz to the multigigahertz regime in just over half a decade. However, the demands of optical interconnects are significant, and many questions remain unanswered as to whether silicon can meet the required performance metrics. Minimizing metrics such as the device footprint and energy requirement per bit, while also maximizing bandwidth and modulation depth, is non-trivial. All of this must be achieved within an acceptable thermal tolerance and optical spectral width using CMOS-compatible fabrication processes. This Review discusses the techniques that have been (and will continue to be) used to implement silicon optical modulators, as well as providing an outlook for these devices and the candidate solutions of the future.

2,110 citations