scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

Grunde Jomaas

Bio: Grunde Jomaas is an academic researcher from University of Edinburgh. The author has contributed to research in topics: Flame spread & Fire protection engineering. The author has an hindex of 20, co-authored 107 publications receiving 2030 citations. Previous affiliations of Grunde Jomaas include University of Central Lancashire & Princeton University.


Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2007
TL;DR: In this article, a kinetic mechanism based on recently published reaction rate constants is presented to model these measured laminar flame speeds as well as a limited set of other experimental data.
Abstract: Laminar flame speeds were accurately measured for CO/H 2 /air and CO/H 2 /O 2 /helium mixtures at different equivalence ratios and mixing ratios by the constant-pressure spherical flame technique for pressures up to 40 atmospheres. A kinetic mechanism based on recently published reaction rate constants is presented to model these measured laminar flame speeds as well as a limited set of other experimental data. The reaction rate constant of CO + HO 2 → CO 2 + OH was determined to be k = 1.15 × 10 5 T 2.278 exp(−17.55 kcal/ RT ) cm 3 mol −1 s −1 at 300–2500 K by ab initio calculations. The kinetic model accurately predicts our measured flame speeds and the non-premixed counterflow ignition temperatures determined in our previous study, as well as homogeneous system data from literature, such as concentration profiles from flow reactor and ignition delay time from shock tube experiments.

317 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: In this article, an experimental and theoretical investigation of the onset of cellular instabilities on spherically expanding flames in mixtures of hydrogen and propane in air at elevated pressures was conducted.
Abstract: An experimental and theoretical investigation of the onset of cellular instabilities on spherically expanding flames in mixtures of hydrogen and propane in air at elevated pressures was conducted. Critical conditions for the onset of instability were measured and mapped out over a range of pressures and mixture compositions. An asymptotic theory of hydrodynamic and diffusional-thermal cell development on flames in mixtures comprised of two scarce fuels burning in air was also formulated. Predicted values of Peclet number, defined as the flame radius at the onset of instability normalized by the flame thickness, were shown to compare favorably with the experimentally measured values.

274 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: In this article, experimental data were acquired for: (1) the ignition temperatures of nitrogen-diluted ethylene and propylene by counterflowing heated air for various strain rates and system pressures up to 7 ǫ atm.
Abstract: Experimental data were acquired for: (1) the ignition temperatures of nitrogen–diluted ethylene and propylene by counterflowing heated air for various strain rates and system pressures up to 7 atm; (2) the laminar flame speeds of mixtures of air with acetylene, ethylene, ethane, propylene, and propane, deduced from an outwardly propagating spherical flame in a constant-pressure chamber, for extensive ranges of lean-to-rich equivalence ratio and system pressure up to 5 atm. These data, respectively, relevant for low- to intermediate-temperature ignition chemistry and high-temperature flame chemistry, were subsequently compared with calculated results using a literature C1–C3 mechanism and an ethylene mechanism. Noticeable differences were observed in the comparison for both mechanisms, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify the reactions of importance.

230 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the instant of transition to cellularity of centrally ignited, outwardly propagating spherical flames in a reactive environment of fuelxoxidizer mixture, at atmospheric and elevated pressures, was experimentally determined using high-speed schlieren imaging and subsequently interpreted on the basis of hydrodynamic and diffusional-thermal instabilities.
Abstract: The instant of transition to cellularity of centrally ignited, outwardly propagating spherical flames in a reactive environment of fuelx–oxidizer mixture, at atmospheric and elevated pressures, was experimentally determined using high-speed schlieren imaging and subsequently interpreted on the basis of hydrodynamic and diffusional–thermal instabilities. Experimental results show that the transition Peclet number, Pec = RclL, assumes an almost constant value for the near-equidiffusive acetylene flames with wide ranges in the mixture stoichiometry, oxygen concentration and pressure, where Rc is the flame radius at transition and lL the laminar flame thickness. However, for the non-equidiffusive hydrogen and propane flames, Pec respectively increases and decreases somewhat linearly with the mixture equivalence ratio. Evaluation of Pec using previous theory shows complete qualitative agreement and satisfactory quantitative agreement, demonstrating the insensitivity of Pec to all system parameters for equidiffusive mixtures, and the dominance of the Markstein number, Ze(Le – 1), in destabilization for non-equidiffusive mixtures, where Ze is the Zel'dovich number and Le the Lewis number. The importance of using locally evaluated values of lL, Ze and Le, extracted from either computationally simulated one-dimensional flame structure with detailed chemistry and transport, or experimentally determined response of stretched flames, in the evaluation of Pec is emphasized.

199 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the requirements for sustained propagation of spark-ignited hydrogen-air and butane-air flames at atmospheric and elevated pressures were investigated, and it was shown that sustained propagation is always possible for mixtures whose Lewis number is less than unity, as long as a flame can be initially established.

153 citations


Cited by
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed to describe the oxidation of small hydrocarbon and oxygenated hydrocarbon species, such as formaldehyde, methanol, acetaldehyde, and ethanol.
Abstract: A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed to describe the oxidation of small hydrocarbon and oxygenated hydrocarbon species. The reactivity of these small fuels and intermediates is of critical importance in understanding and accurately describing the combustion characteristics, such as ignition delay time, flame speed, and emissions of practical fuels. The chosen rate expressions have been assembled through critical evaluation of the literature, with minimum optimization performed. The mechanism has been validated over a wide range of initial conditions and experimental devices, including flow reactor, shock tube, jet-stirred reactor, and flame studies. The current mechanism contains accurate kinetic descriptions for saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, namely methane, ethane, ethylene, and acetylene, and oxygenated species; formaldehyde, methanol, acetaldehyde, and ethanol.

925 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a detailed kinetic mechanism for the pyrolysis and combustion of a large variety of fuels at high temperature conditions is presented, and the authors identify aspects of the mechanism that require further revision.

817 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an updated H2/O2 kinetic model based on that of Li et al. (Int J Chem Kinet 36, 2004, 566-575) is presented and tested against a wide range of combustion targets.
Abstract: An updated H2/O2 kinetic model based on that of Li et al. (Int J Chem Kinet 36, 2004, 566–575) is presented and tested against a wide range of combustion targets. The primary motivations of the model revision are to incorporate recent improvements in rate constant treatment and resolve discrepancies between experimental data and predictions using recently published kinetic models in dilute, high-pressure flames. Attempts are made to identify major remaining sources of uncertainties, in both the reaction rate parameters and the assumptions of the kinetic model, affecting predictions of relevant combustion behavior. With regard to model parameters, present uncertainties in the temperature and pressure dependence of rate constants for HO2 formation and consumption reactions are demonstrated to substantially affect predictive capabilities at high-pressure, low-temperature conditions. With regard to model assumptions, calculations are performed to investigate several reactions/processes that have not received much attention previously. Results from ab initio calculations and modeling studies imply that inclusion of H + HO2 = H2O + O in the kinetic model might be warranted, though further studies are necessary to ascertain its role in combustion modeling. In addition, it appears that characterization of nonlinear bath-gas mixture rule behavior for H + O2(+ M) = HO2(+ M) in multicomponent bath gases might be necessary to predict high-pressure flame speeds within ∼15%. The updated model is tested against all of the previous validation targets considered by Li et al. as well as new targets from a number of recent studies. Special attention is devoted to establishing a context for evaluating model performance against experimental data by careful consideration of uncertainties in measurements, initial conditions, and physical model assumptions. For example, ignition delay times in shock tubes are shown to be sensitive to potential impurity effects, which have been suggested to accelerate early radical pool growth in shock tube speciation studies. In addition, speciation predictions in burner-stabilized flames are found to be more sensitive to uncertainties in experimental boundary conditions than to uncertainties in kinetics and transport. Predictions using the present model adequately reproduce previous validation targets and show substantially improved agreement against recent high-pressure flame speed and shock tube speciation measurements. Comparisons of predictions of several other kinetic models with the experimental data for nearly the entire validation set used here are also provided in the Supporting Information. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet 44: 444–474, 2012

708 citations

Book ChapterDOI
28 Jan 2005
TL;DR: The Q12-40 density: ρ ((kg/m) specific heat: Cp (J/kg ·K) dynamic viscosity: ν ≡ μ/ρ (m/s) thermal conductivity: k, (W/m ·K), thermal diffusivity: α, ≡ k/(ρ · Cp) (m /s) Prandtl number: Pr, ≡ ν/α (−−) volumetric compressibility: β, (1/K).
Abstract: Geometry: shape, size, aspect ratio and orientation Flow Type: forced, natural, laminar, turbulent, internal, external Boundary: isothermal (Tw = constant) or isoflux (q̇w = constant) Fluid Type: viscous oil, water, gases or liquid metals Properties: all properties determined at film temperature Tf = (Tw + T∞)/2 Note: ρ and ν ∝ 1/Patm ⇒ see Q12-40 density: ρ ((kg/m) specific heat: Cp (J/kg ·K) dynamic viscosity: μ, (N · s/m) kinematic viscosity: ν ≡ μ/ρ (m/s) thermal conductivity: k, (W/m ·K) thermal diffusivity: α, ≡ k/(ρ · Cp) (m/s) Prandtl number: Pr, ≡ ν/α (−−) volumetric compressibility: β, (1/K)

636 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the initiation of turbulent non-premixed combustion of gaseous fuels through autoignition and through spark ignition is reviewed, motivated by the increasing relevance of these phenomena for new combustion technologies.

614 citations