Other affiliations: University of Copenhagen, Technische Universität München, University of Copenhagen Faculty of Life Sciences
Bio: Gunter Backes is an academic researcher from University of Kassel. The author has contributed to research in topics: Hordeum vulgare & Population. The author has an hindex of 20, co-authored 48 publications receiving 1445 citations. Previous affiliations of Gunter Backes include University of Copenhagen & Technische Universität München.
TL;DR: The identification of QTLs for agronomic traits is a first step to analyze and to dissect complex characters such as adaptation to drought tolerance in RILs of the cross 'Arta' × Hordeum spontaneum 41-1.
Abstract: A genetic linkage map has been developed for recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross 'Arta' � Hordeum spontaneum 41-1. One hundred and ninety four RILs, randomly chosen from a population of 494 RILs, were mapped with 189 markers including one morpho- logical trait (btr = brittle rachis locus). The linkage map extended to 890 cM. Agronomic traits such as grain yield, biological yield, days to heading, plant height, cold tolerance and others were evaluated at the ICARDA research stations Tel Hadya and Breda during the years 1996-97 and 1997-98. QTLs for agronomic traits related to drought resistance were localized. For the most- important character 'plant height under drought stress', QTLs on 2H, 3H and 7H were detected. The 'plant height' QTLs, specially the one on 3H, showed pleiotropic effects on traits such as days to heading, grain yield and biological yield. QTLs were also identified for other traits associated with adaptation to the Mediterranean environment such as cold tolerance, days to heading and tiller number. The identification of QTLs for agronomic traits is a first step to analyze and to dissect complex characters such as adaptation to drought tolerance.
TL;DR: Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were determined and localized for resistance against Rhynchosporium secalis and Erysiphe graminis, for lodging, stalk breaking and ear breaking tendency, for the physical state before harvest, plant height, heading date, several kernel parameters and kernel yield.
Abstract: Two hundred and fifty doubled haploid lines were studied from a cross between two 2-row winter barley varieties. The lines were evaluated for several characters in a field experiment for 3 years on two locations with two replications. From a total of 431 RFLP probes 50 were found to be polymorphic and subsequently used to construct a linkage map. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were determined and localized for resistance against Rhynchosporium secalis and Erysiphe graminis, for lodging, stalk breaking and ear breaking tendency, for the physical state before harvest, plant height, heading date, several kernel parameters and kernel yield. The heritability of the traits ranged from 0.56 to 0.89. For each trait except for kernel thickness, QTLs have been localized that explain 5–52% of the genetic variance. Transgressive segregation occurred for all of the traits studied.
TL;DR: The data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat varieties anchored to D ArT markers, which will facilitate targeted combination of alleles following DArT-based QTL studies, and the genetic diversity and distance data combined with specific Rht8 genotypes can now be used by breeders to guide selection of crossing parents.
Abstract: Progress in plant breeding is facilitated by accurate information about genetic structure and diversity. Here, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) was used to characterize a population of 94 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of mainly European origin. In total, 1,849 of 7,000 tested markers were polymorphic and could be used for population structure analysis. Two major subgroups of wheat varieties, GrI and GrII, were identified using the program STRUCTURE, and confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA). These subgroups were largely separated according to origin; GrI comprised varieties from Southern and Eastern Europe, whereas GrII contained mostly modern varieties from Western and Northern Europe. A large proportion of the markers contributing most to the genetic separation of the subgroups were located on chromosome 2D near the Reduced height 8 (Rht8) locus, and PCR-based genotyping suggested that breeding for the Rht8 allele had a major impact on subgroup separation. Consistently, analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) suggested that different selective pressures had acted on chromosome 2D in the two subgroups. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat varieties anchored to DArT markers, which will facilitate targeted combination of alleles following DArT-based QTL studies. In addition, the genetic diversity and distance data combined with specific Rht8 genotypes can now be used by breeders to guide selection of crossing parents.
TL;DR: DNA sequences related to the majority of the barley RGAs were identified in the recently expanded public rice genomic sequence database, indicating that the rice sequence can be used to extract a large proportion of the RGAs from barley and other cereals.
Abstract: The majority of verified plant disease resistance genes isolated to date are of the NBS-LRR class, encoding proteins with a predicted nucleotide binding site (NBS) and a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) region. We took advantage of the sequence conservation in the NBS motif to clone, by PCR, gene fragments from barley representing putative disease resistance genes of this class. Over 30 different resistance gene analogs (RGAs) were isolated from the barley cultivar Regatta. These were grouped into 13 classes based on DNA sequence similarity. Actively transcribed genes were identified from all classes but one, and cDNA clones were isolated to derive the complete NBS-LRR protein sequences. Some of the NBS-LRR genes exhibited variation with respect to whether and where particular introns were spliced, as well as frequent premature polyadenylation. DNA sequences related to the majority of the barley RGAs were identified in the recently expanded public rice genomic sequence database, indicating that the rice sequence can be used to extract a large proportion of the RGAs from barley and other cereals. Using a combination of RFLP and PCR marker techniques, representatives of all barley RGA gene classes were mapped in the barley genome, to all chromosomes except 4H. A number of the RGA loci map in the vicinity of known disease resistance loci, and the association between RGA S-120 and the nematode resistance locus Ha2on chromosome 2H was further tested by co-segregation analysis. Most of the RGA sequences reported here have not been described previously, and represent a useful resource as candidates or molecular markers for disease resistance genes in barley and other cereals.
TL;DR: EcoTILLING, which is a high-throughput method to detect and discover new point mutations and small insertions/deletions in DNA, not only reveals polymorphism between different alleles but can also be used as a powerful genetic marker.
Abstract: In this investigation the successful implementation of a CEL I-based mutation detection technique for the discovery and detection of DNA polymorphism in the genes mlo and Mla of barley is described. The technique is called EcoTILLING, which is a high-throughput method to detect and discover new point mutations and small insertions/deletions in DNA. That the method not only reveals polymorphism between different alleles but can also be used as a powerful genetic marker is demonstrated. The genes mlo and Mla are involved in the defence of barley against the fungal pathogen powdery mildew. The powdery mildew resistance gene mlo is a single copy gene, whereas multiple alleles exist at the Mla locus. With EcoTILLING it was possible to identify point mutations and deletions in each of the 11 mlo mutants tested. For Mla 25 natural barley variants were tested, and although the identification was complex due to the presence of highly similar paralogues of Mla, most of the recently identified alleles from Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum were identified. This method offers the possibility to combine different mlo alleles with different Mla alleles from wild barley to obtain cultivars with more durable resistance.
01 Jan 2016
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TL;DR: The definition, development, application and prospects of functional markers are outlined and are superior to random DNA markers such as RFLPs, SSRs and AFLPs owing to complete linkage with trait locus alleles.
Abstract: Different approaches (including association studies) have recently been adopted for the functional characterization of allelic variation in plants and to identify sequence motifs affecting phenotypic variation. We propose the term 'functional markers' for DNA markers derived from such functionally characterized sequence motifs. Functional markers are superior to random DNA markers such as RFLPs, SSRs and AFLPs owing to complete linkage with trait locus alleles. We outline the definition, development, application and prospects of functional markers.
TL;DR: Rapid advance in knowledge on genomics and proteomics will certainly be beneficial to fine-tune the molecular breeding and transformation approaches so as to achieve a significant progress in crop improvement in future.
Abstract: Undoubtedly, drought is one of the prime abiotic stresses in the world. Crop yield losses due to drought stress are considerable. Although a variety of approaches have been used to alleviate the problem of drought, plant breeding, either conventional breeding or genetic engineering, seems to be an efficient and economic means of tailoring crops to enable them to grow successfully in drought-prone environments. During the last century, although plant breeders have made ample progress through conventional breeding in developing drought tolerant lines/cultivars of some selected crops, the approach is, in fact, highly time-consuming and labor- and cost-intensive. Alternatively, marker-assisted breeding (MAB) is a more efficient approach, which identifies the usefulness of thousands of genomic regions of a crop under stress conditions, which was, in reality, previously not possible. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for drought tolerance have been identified for a variety of traits in different crops. With the development of comprehensive molecular linkage maps, marker-assisted selection procedures have led to pyramiding desirable traits to achieve improvements in crop drought tolerance. However, the accuracy and preciseness in QTL identification are problematic. Furthermore, significant genetic × environment interaction, large number of genes encoding yield, and use of wrong mapping populations, have all harmed programs involved in mapping of QTL for high growth and yield under water limited conditions. Under such circumstances, a transgenic approach to the problem seems more convincing and practicable, and it is being pursued vigorously to improve qualitative and quantitative traits including tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in different crops. Rapid advance in knowledge on genomics and proteomics will certainly be beneficial to fine-tune the molecular breeding and transformation approaches so as to achieve a significant progress in crop improvement in future. Knowledge of gene regulation and signal transduction to generate drought tolerant crop cultivars/lines has been discussed in the present review. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages as well as future prospects of each breeding approach have also been discussed.
TL;DR: The physiological basis of crop yield and its response to stresses is highlighted, with special emphasis on drought, and ways to improve the efficiency of crop breeding through a better physiological understanding by both conventional and molecular methods are discussed.
Abstract: The need to accelerate breeding for increased yield potential and better adaptation to drought and other abiotic stresses is an issue of increasing urgency. As the population continues to grow rapidly, the pressure on resources (mainly untouched land and water) is also increasing, and potential climate change poses further challenges. We discuss ways to improve the efficiency of crop breeding through a better physiological understanding by both conventional and molecular methods. Thus the review highlights the physiological basis of crop yield and its response to stresses, with special emphasis on drought. This is not just because physiology forms the basis of proper phenotyping, one of the pillars of breeding, but because a full understanding of physiology is also needed, for example, to design the traits targeted by molecular breeding approaches such as marker-assisted selection (MAS) or plant transformation or the way these traits are evaluated. Most of the information in this review deals with cereals...
TL;DR: The polymorphism of the interspecific progeny clearly exceeded that of the intraspecific progeny although, based on their pedigrees, IGRI and FRANKA are only distantly related.
Abstract: In order to construct an RFLP map of barley, two populations were analyzed using 251 genomic and cDNA markers: one population comprised 71 F1 antherderived double haploid (DH) individuals of an intraspecific cross (IGRI x FRANKA), and the other 135 individuals of an interspecific F2/F3 progeny (VADA x H. spontaneum). The distribution of nonrepetitive clones over the seven barley chromosomes revealed a maximum for chromosome 2H and a minimum for 6H. The polymorphism of the interspecific progeny (76%) clearly exceeded that of the intraspecific progeny (26%) although, based on their pedigrees, IGRI and FRANKA are only distantly related. The contribution of individual chromosomes of the DH parents to the overall polymorphism varied between 8% and 50%. A significant portion (44% versus 10% of the interspecific progeny) of the markers mapped on the DH offspring showed distorted segregation, caused mainly by the prevalence of variants originating from the parent that better responded to in vitro culture (IGRI). In contrast to the interspecific map, probes displaying skewed segregation were clustered on the DH map on discrete segments. The colinear arrangement of both maps covers a distance of 1,453 cM and identifies regions of varying map distances.