Haji Hassan Masjuki
Other affiliations: National University of Malaysia, University of Kuala Lumpur, International Islamic University Malaysia ...read more
Bio: Haji Hassan Masjuki is an academic researcher from University of Malaya. The author has contributed to research in topics: Biodiesel & Diesel fuel. The author has an hindex of 97, co-authored 502 publications receiving 29653 citations. Previous affiliations of Haji Hassan Masjuki include National University of Malaysia & University of Kuala Lumpur.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, a detailed review has been conducted to highlight different related aspects to the biodiesel industry, including, biodiesel feedstocks, extraction and production methods, properties and qualities of biodiesel, problems and potential solutions of using vegetable oil, advantages and disadvantages of biodies, the economical viability and finally the future of the future biodiesel.
Abstract: As the fossil fuels are depleting day by day, there is a need to find out an alternative fuel to fulfill the energy demand of the world. Biodiesel is one of the best available resources that have come to the forefront recently. In this paper, a detailed review has been conducted to highlight different related aspects to biodiesel industry. These aspects include, biodiesel feedstocks, extraction and production methods, properties and qualities of biodiesel, problems and potential solutions of using vegetable oil, advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel, the economical viability and finally the future of biodiesel. The literature reviewed was selective and critical. Highly rated journals in scientific indexes were the preferred choice, although other non-indexed publications, such as Scientific Research and Essays or some internal reports from highly reputed organizations such as International Energy Agency (IEA), Energy Information Administration (EIA) and British Petroleum (BP) have also been cited. Based on the overview presented, it is clear that the search for beneficial biodiesel sources should focus on feedstocks that do not compete with food crops, do not lead to land-clearing and provide greenhouse-gas reductions. These feedstocks include non-edible oils such as Jatropha curcas and Calophyllum inophyllum , and more recently microalgae and genetically engineered plants such as poplar and switchgrass have emerged to be very promising feedstocks for biodiesel production. It has been found that feedstock alone represents more than 75% of the overall biodiesel production cost. Therefore, selecting the best feedstock is vital to ensure low production cost. It has also been found that the continuity in transesterification process is another choice to minimize the production cost. Biodiesel is currently not economically feasible, and more research and technological development are needed. Thus supporting policies are important to promote biodiesel research and make their prices competitive with other conventional sources of energy. Currently, biodiesel can be more effective if used as a complement to other energy sources.
TL;DR: The use of non-edible plant oils is very significant because of the tremendous demand for edible oils as food source as mentioned in this paper, however, edible oils’ feedstock costs are far expensive to be used as fuel.
Abstract: World energy demand is expected to increase due to the expanding urbanization, better living standards and increasing population. At a time when society is becoming increasingly aware of the declining reserves of fossil fuels beside the environmental concerns, it has become apparent that biodiesel is destined to make a substantial contribution to the future energy demands of the domestic and industrial economies. There are different potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. Non-edible vegetable oils which are known as the second generation feedstocks can be considered as promising substitutions for traditional edible food crops for the production of biodiesel. The use of non-edible plant oils is very significant because of the tremendous demand for edible oils as food source. Moreover, edible oils’ feedstock costs are far expensive to be used as fuel. Therefore, production of biodiesel from non-edible oils is an effective way to overcome all the associated problems with edible oils. However, the potential of converting non-edible oil into biodiesel must be well examined. This is because physical and chemical properties of biodiesel produced from any feedstock must comply with the limits of ASTM and DIN EN specifications for biodiesel fuels. This paper introduces non-edible vegetable oils to be used as biodiesel feedstocks. Several aspects related to these feedstocks have been reviewed from various recent publications. These aspects include overview of non-edible oil resources, advantages of non-edible oils, problems in exploitation of non-edible oils, fatty acid composition profiles (FAC) of various non-edible oils, oil extraction techniques, technologies of biodiesel production from non-edible oils, biodiesel standards and characterization, properties and characteristic of non-edible biodiesel and engine performance and emission production. As a conclusion, it has been found that there is a huge chance to produce biodiesel from non-edible oil sources and therefore it can boost the future production of biodiesel.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed the potential of microalgae and macroalgae for the production of bio-diesel and micro-algae as a promising alternative source to the conventional feedstocks for the third generation biofuel production.
Abstract: Due to diminishing petroleum reserves and deleterious environmental consequences of exhaust gases from fossil-based fuels, research on renewable and environment friendly fuels has received a lot of impetus in the recent years. However, the availability of the non-edible crops serve as the sources for biofuel production are limited and economically not feasible. Algae are a promising alternative source to the conventional feedstocks for the third generation biofuel production. There has been a considerable discussion in the recent years about the potential of microalgae for the production of biofuels, but there may be other more readily exploitable commercial opportunities for macroalgae and microalgae. This review, briefly describes the biofuels conversion technologies for both macroalgae and microalgae. The gasification process produces combustible gases such as H2, CH4, CO2 and ammonia, whereas, the product of pyrolysis is bio-oil. The fermentation product of algae is ethanol, that can be used as a direct fuel or as a gasohol. Hydrogen can be obtained from the photobiological process of algal biomass. In transesterification process, algae oil is converted into biodiesel, which is quite similar to those of conventional diesel and it can be blended with the petroleum diesel. This study, also reviewed the production of high value byproducts from macroalgae and microalgae and their commercial applications. Algae as a potential renewable resource is not only used for biofuels but also for human health, animal and aquatic nutrition, environmental applications such as CO2 mitigation, wastewater treatment, biofertilizer, high-value compounds, synthesis of pigments and stable isotope biochemicals. This review is mainly an attempt, to investigate the biorefinery concept applied on the algal technology, for the synthesis of novel bioproducts to improve the algal biofuels as even more diversified and economically competitive. The employment of a high-value, co-product strategy through the integrated biorefinery approach is expected to significantly enhance the overall commercial implementation of the biofuel from the algal technology.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduced some species of non-edible vegetables whose oils are potential sources of biodiesel, such as Pongamia pinnata (karanja), Calophyllum inophyllus (Polanga), Maduca indica (mahua), Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed), Cotton seed, Simmondsia chinesnsis (Jojoba), Nicotianna tabacum (tobacco), Azadirachta indica, Linum usitatissimum (Linseed)
Abstract: Energy demand is increasing dramatically because of the fast industrial development, rising population, expanding urbanization, and economic growth in the world. To fulfill this energy demand, a large amount of fuel is widely used from different fossil resources. Burning of fossil fuels has caused serious detrimental environmental consequences. The application of biodiesel has shown a positive impact in resolving these issues. Edible vegetable oils are one of the potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. However, as the use of edible oils will jeopardize food supplies and biodiversity, non-edible vegetable oils, also known as second-generation feedstocks, are considered potential substitutes of edible food crops for biodiesel production. This paper introduces some species of non-edible vegetables whose oils are potential sources of biodiesel. These species are Pongamia pinnata (karanja), Calophyllum inophyllum (Polanga), Maduca indica (mahua), Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed), Cotton seed, Simmondsia chinesnsis (Jojoba), Nicotianna tabacum (tobacco), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Linum usitatissimum (Linseed) and Jatropha curcas (Jatropha). Various aspects of non-edible feedstocks, such as biology, distribution, and chemistry, the biodiesel’s physicochemical properties, and its effect on engine performance and emission, are reviewed based on published articles. From the review, fuel properties are found to considerably vary depending on feedstocks. Analysis of the performance results revealed that most of the biodiesel generally give higher brake thermal efficiency and lower brake-specific fuel consumption. Emission results showed that in most cases, NOx emission is increased, and HC, CO, and PM emissions are decreases. It was reported that a diesel engine could be successfully run and could give excellent performance and the study revealed the most effective regulated emissions on the application of karanja, mahua, rubber seed, and tobacco biodiesel and their blends as fuel in a CI engine.
TL;DR: In this article, a detailed discussion to produce biodiesel, fuel gas, bio-oil, methane, hydrogen and alcohol from microalgae biomass are also included, along with updated research, challenges and the way forward of micro-algae biofuels are also presented.
Abstract: Biofuels productions from microalgae received wide attention recently and have high potential to replace fossil fuels. This paper served as a platform to critically review current production technologies of microalgae, ranging from cultivation, harvesting, extraction and several biofuels conversion processes. In addition, due to the high photosynthetic efficiency of microalgae, mass cultivation of microalgae is believed to be able to efficiently reduce the carbon dioxide emission to atmosphere and thus, reducing the impact of global warming. This is because microalgae have high growth rate and is able to develop maximum of 70% of lipid content within their cells depending on species. Apart from that, microalgae have the ability to survive under harsh condition and occupied smaller cultivation land area than other land crops. The harvested microalgae biomass can be used for electrical generation, while its crude lipid can be used as transportation fuel as it has 80% average energy content of petroleum. In the present paper, a detailed discussion to produce biodiesel, fuel gas, bio-oil, methane, hydrogen and alcohol from microalgae biomass are also included. Besides, updated research, challenges and the way forward of microalgae biofuels are also presented. In future, biofuels production from microalgae can be economical viable at some scale, which is then profitable in terms of economics and also environment.
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …
TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.
Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON
TL;DR: The concepts of design and the scientific philosophy of Green Chemistry are covered with a set of illustrative examples and the challenge of using the Principles as a cohesive design system is discussed.
Abstract: Green Chemistry is a relatively new emerging field that strives to work at the molecular level to achieve sustainability. The field has received widespread interest in the past decade due to its ability to harness chemical innovation to meet environmental and economic goals simultaneously. Green Chemistry has a framework of a cohesive set of Twelve Principles, which have been systematically surveyed in this critical review. This article covers the concepts of design and the scientific philosophy of Green Chemistry with a set of illustrative examples. Future trends in Green Chemistry are discussed with the challenge of using the Principles as a cohesive design system (93 references).
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the production, characterization and current statuses of vegetable oil and biodiesel as well as the experimental research work carried out in various countries is presented.
Abstract: The increasing industrialization and motorization of the world has led to a steep rise for the demand of petroleum-based fuels. Petroleum-based fuels are obtained from limited reserves. These finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain regions of the world. Therefore, those countries not having these resources are facing energy/foreign exchange crisis, mainly due to the import of crude petroleum. Hence, it is necessary to look for alternative fuels which can be produced from resources available locally within the country such as alcohol, biodiesel, vegetable oils etc. This paper reviews the production, characterization and current statuses of vegetable oil and biodiesel as well as the experimental research work carried out in various countries. This paper touches upon well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions, well-to-wheel efficiencies, fuel versatility, infrastructure, availability, economics, engine performance and emissions, effect on wear, lubricating oil etc. Ethanol is also an attractive alternative fuel because it is a renewable bio-based resource and it is oxygenated, thereby providing the potential to reduce particulate emissions in compression-ignition engines. In this review, the properties and specifications of ethanol blended with diesel and gasoline fuel are also discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the factors critical to the potential commercial use of these blends. The effect of the fuel on engine performance and emissions (SI as well as compression ignition (CI) engines), and material compatibility is also considered. Biodiesel is methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acid made from virgin or used vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and animal fat. The main resources for biodiesel production can be non-edible oils obtained from plant species such as Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot), Pongamia pinnata (Karanj), Calophyllum inophyllum (Nagchampa), Hevca brasiliensis (Rubber) etc. Biodiesel can be blended in any proportion with mineral diesel to create a biodiesel blend or can be used in its pure form. Just like petroleum diesel, biodiesel operates in compression ignition (diesel) engine, and essentially require very little or no engine modifications because biodiesel has properties similar to mineral diesel. It can be stored just like mineral diesel and hence does not require separate infrastructure. The use of biodiesel in conventional diesel engines result in substantial reduction in emission of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate. This review focuses on performance and emission of biodiesel in CI engines, combustion analysis, wear performance on long-term engine usage, and economic feasibility.
TL;DR: Lipson and Steeple as mentioned in this paper interpreted X-ray powder diffraction patterns and found that powder-diffraction patterns can be represented by a set of 3-dimensional planes.
Abstract: Interpretation of X-ray Powder Diffraction Patterns . By H. Lipson and H. Steeple. Pp. viii + 335 + 3 plates. (Mac-millan: London; St Martins Press: New York, May 1970.) £4.