TL;DR: In this paper, an inverted power-law mixing rule model computing volume fractions in which three or more prime materials should be taken to get in the resulting homogeneous mixture the required dielectric properties.
Abstract: Many applications in wireless communication, microelectronics, and microwave power engineering rely on dielectrics with particular dielectric properties. This article proposes an original approach that can be used for producing materials with required complex permittivity. The technique is based on an inverted power-law mixing rule model computing volume fractions in which three or more prime materials should be taken to get in the resulting homogeneous mixture the required dielectric properties. Functionality of the approach is demonstrated by production of composites from a polymer matrix (polymethyl methacrylate) and two inorganic fillers (silicon and alumina). The composites are made by mechanically mixing the powders and axially hot-pressing and cooling the mixture. Complex permittivity of the samples is measured by a split-post resonator method. Experimental data on dielectric properties of the samples help calibrate the technique; for the used powders, the Looyenga power-law model is found to be most adequate. In the produced samples, the target values of dielectric constant are reached with a higher precision than the ones of the loss factor; however, analysis of the production process and error propagation in the computations suggest that deviations of the resultant complex permittivity fall in the anticipated ranges. Features and issues of both computational and production parts of the technique are finally discussed. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 58:319–326, 2018. VC 2017 Society of Plastics Engineers
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: The electrodynamics of continuous media is universally compatible with any devices to read and is available in the book collection an online access to it is set as public so you can get it instantly.
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TL;DR: In this paper, the LD125 modified glass fiber (GF) was introduced to the CaO-Li2O-Sm2O3-TiO2 (CLST)/PTFE composite, to reduce the thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of the composites.
Abstract: Ceramic and polytetrafluoroethylene composites as dielectric materials have a low dielectric loss at high frequency and play an important role in the modern communication field. However, room temperature phase transformation of PTFE resins, which is accompanied by a large volume change (> 400 ppm/oC), seriously affects the dimensional stability and performance stability of materials. The LD125 modified glass fiber (GF) was introduced to the CaO-Li2O-Sm2O3-TiO2 (CLST)/PTFE composite, to reduce the thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of the composites. The tri-phase composites (CLST/PTFE/GF) show the low dielectric loss and excellent machine-ability. The effect of GF content on the dielectric properties and CTE was also investigated. The CLST/PTFE filled with 5% GF exhibits the best overall performance, which is a promising microwave dielectric material for microwave communication.
TL;DR: In this article, a modification of the Lichtenecker-Rother model is proposed for the dielectric permittivity of polymer composites that takes into account aggregation of filler particles into clusters.
Abstract: A modification of the Lichtenecker–Rother model is proposed for the dielectric permittivity of polymer composites that takes into account aggregation of filler particles into clusters. The governing equations for the real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity of a composite involve three adjustable parameters with transparent physical meaning. These quantities are determined by fitting experimental data on a number of polymers reinforced with ceramic, magnetic and carbon particles. Good agreement is demonstrated between the results of simulation and observations on the dielectric constant and dielectric loss at microwave frequencies. It is shown that the model can be applied to extract dielectric parameters of filler from observations on polymer composites.
18 Sep 2018-Compel-the International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a computational technique capable of determining the geometry and complex permittivity of a supplementary dielectric insert making distributions of microwave-induced dissipated power within the processed material as uniform as possible.
Abstract: Purpose This paper aims to introduce and illustrate a computational technique capable of determining the geometry and complex permittivity of a supplementary dielectric insert making distributions of microwave-induced dissipated power within the processed material as uniform as possible. Design/methodology/approach The proposed technique is based on a 3D electromagnetic model of the cavity containing both the processed material and the insert. Optimization problem is formulated for design variables (geometrical and material parameters of the insert) identified from computational tests and an objective function (the relative standard deviation [RSD]) introduced as a metric of the field uniformity. Numerical inversion is performed with the method of sequential quadratic programming. Findings Functionality of the procedure is illustrated by synthesis of a dielectric insert in an applicator for microwave fixation. Optimization is completed for four design variables (two geometrical parameters, dielectric constant and the loss factor of the insert) with 1,000 points in the database. The best three optimal solutions provide RSD approximately 20 per cent, whereas for the patterns corresponding to all 1,000 non-optimized (randomly chosen) sets of design variables this metric is in the interval from 27 to 136 per cent with the average of 78 per cent. Research limitations/implications As microwave thermal processing is intrinsically inhomogeneous and the heating time is not a part of the underlying model, the procedure is able to lead only to a certain degree of closeness to uniformity and is intended for applications with high heating rates. The initial phase of computational identification of design variables and their bounds is therefore very important and may pre-condition the “quality” of the optimal solution. The technique may work more efficiently in combination with advanced optimization techniques dealing with “smart” (rather than random) generation of the data; for the use with more general microwave heating processes characterized by lower heating rates, the technique has to use the metric of non-uniformity involving temperature and heating time. Practical implications While the procedure can be used for computer-aided design (CAD) of microwave applicators, a related practical limitation may emerge from the fact that the material with particular complex permittivity (determined in the course of optimization) may not exist. In such cases, the procedure can be rerun for the constant values of material parameters of the available medium mostly close to the optimal ones to tune geometrical parameters of the insert. Special manufacturing techniques capable of producing a material with required complex permittivity also may be a practical option here. Originality/value Non-uniformity of microwave heating remains a key challenge in the design of many practical applicators. This paper suggests a concept of a practical CAD and outlines corresponding computational procedure that could be used for designing a range of applied systems with high heating rates.