Hao Chi Zhang
Other affiliations: Nanyang Technological University
Bio: Hao Chi Zhang is an academic researcher from Southeast University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Surface plasmon polariton & Plasmon. The author has an hindex of 27, co-authored 97 publications receiving 2255 citations. Previous affiliations of Hao Chi Zhang include Nanyang Technological University.
TL;DR: In this article, a special plasmonic waveguide composed of two ultrathin corrugated metallic strips on top and bottom surfaces of a dielectric substrate with mirror symmetry is presented, which is easy to integrate with the amplifier.
Abstract: Efficient amplification of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is proposed at microwave frequencies by using a subwavelength-scale amplifier For this purpose, a special plasmonic waveguide composed of two ultrathin corrugated metallic strips on top and bottom surfaces of a dielectric substrate with mirror symmetry is presented, which is easy to integrate with the amplifier It is shown that spoof SPPs are able to propagate on the plasmonic waveguide in broadband with low loss and strong subwavelength effect By loading a low-noise amplifier chip produced by the semiconductor technology, the first experiment is demonstrated to amplify spoof SPPs at microwave frequencies (from 6 to 20GHz) with high gain (around 20dB), which can be directly used as a SPP amplifier device The features of strong field confinement, high efficiency, broadband operation, and significant amplification of the spoof SPPs may advance a big step towards other active SPP components and integrated circuits
TL;DR: In this article, a planar spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) waveguide is used for frequency-controlled broadband and broad-angle beam scanning in planar integrated communication systems.
Abstract: Frequency-controlled broadband and broad-angle beam scanning is proposed using a circular-patch array fed by planar spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Here, a row of circularly metallic patches is placed near an ultrathin planar spoof SPP waveguide. When the SPP wave is transmitted through the waveguide, the circular patches are fed at the same time. Because of the phase difference fed to the patches, the proposed structure can realize wide-angle beam scanning from backward direction to forward direction as the frequency changes, breaking the limit of traditional leaky-wave antennas. Both numerical simulations and measured results demonstrate good performance of the proposed structure. It is shown that the scanning angle can reach 55° with an average gain level of 9.8 dBi. The proposed frequency scanning patch array is of great value in planar integrated communication systems.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed time-domain spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) as the carrier of signals, and showed that spoof SPPs are supported from very low frequency to the cutoff frequency with strong subwavelength effects.
Abstract: In modern integrated circuits and wireless communication devices or systems, three key features need to be solved simultaneously to reach higher performance and more compact size: signal integrity, interference suppression, and miniaturization. However, the above-mentioned requests are almost contradictory using the traditional techniques. To overcome this challenge, here we propose time-domain spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) as the carrier of signals. By designing a special plasmonic waveguide constructed by printing two narrow corrugated metallic strips on the top and bottom surfaces of a dielectric substrate with mirror symmetry, we show that spoof SPPs are supported from very low frequency to the cutoff frequency with strong subwavelength effects, which can be converted to the time-domain SPPs. When two such plasmonic waveguides are tightly packed with deep-subwavelength separation, which commonly happens in integrated circuits and wireless communications due to limited space, we demonstrate t...
TL;DR: In this article, a spoof surface plasmon polariton (SPP) emitter composed of ultrathin corrugated metallic strips exhibiting the directional radiation property is proposed.
Abstract: We propose a spoof surface plasmon polariton (SPP) emitter which is composed of ultrathin corrugated metallic strips, exhibiting the directional radiation property. The spoof SPP emitter provides a way to quickly convert the SPP mode to a radiated mode. By controlling phase modulations produced by the phase-gradient metasurface on the ultrathin metallic strips, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that spoof SPP waves are converted into spatial propagating waves with high efficiency, which are further radiated with flexible beam steering. The proposed method sets up a link between SPP waves and radiation waves in a highly controllable way, which would possibly open an avenue in designing new kinds of microwave and optical elements in engineering.
03 Oct 2018
TL;DR: A general theory of space-time modulated digital coding metasurfaces is proposed to obtain simultaneous manipulations of EM waves in both space and frequency domains, i.e., to control the propagation direction and harmonic power distribution simultaneously.
Abstract: The recently proposed digital coding metasurfaces make it possible to control electromagnetic (EM) waves in real time, and allow the implementation of many different functionalities in a programmable way. However, current configurations are only space-encoded, and do not exploit the temporal dimension. Here, we propose a general theory of space-time modulated digital coding metasurfaces to obtain simultaneous manipulations of EM waves in both space and frequency domains, i.e., to control the propagation direction and harmonic power distribution simultaneously. As proof-of-principle application examples, we consider harmonic beam steering, beam shaping, and scattering-signature control. For validation, we realize a prototype controlled by a field-programmable gate array, which implements the harmonic beam steering via an optimized space-time coding sequence. Numerical and experimental results, in good agreement, demonstrate good performance of the proposed approach, with potential applications to diverse fields such as wireless communications, cognitive radars, adaptive beamforming, holographic imaging.
TL;DR: The ability of the anisotropic coding metasurfaces to generate a beam splitter and realize simultaneous anomalous reflections and polarization conversions, thus providing powerful control of differently polarized electromagnetic waves is demonstrated.
Abstract: Metamaterials based on effective media can be used to produce a number of unusual physical properties (for example, negative refraction and invisibility cloaking) because they can be tailored with effective medium parameters that do not occur in nature. Recently, the use of coding metamaterials has been suggested for the control of electromagnetic waves through the design of coding sequences using digital elements ‘0’ and ‘1,' which possess opposite phase responses. Here we propose the concept of an anisotropic coding metamaterial in which the coding behaviors in different directions are dependent on the polarization status of the electromagnetic waves. We experimentally demonstrate an ultrathin and flexible polarization-controlled anisotropic coding metasurface that functions in the terahertz regime using specially designed coding elements. By encoding the elements with elaborately designed coding sequences (both 1-bit and 2-bit sequences), the x- and y-polarized waves can be anomalously reflected or independently diffused in three dimensions. The simulated far-field scattering patterns and near-field distributions are presented to illustrate the dual-functional performance of the encoded metasurface, and the results are consistent with the measured results. We further demonstrate the ability of the anisotropic coding metasurfaces to generate a beam splitter and realize simultaneous anomalous reflections and polarization conversions, thus providing powerful control of differently polarized electromagnetic waves. The proposed method enables versatile beam behaviors under orthogonal polarizations using a single metasurface and has the potential for use in the development of interesting terahertz devices. An artificial material that controls electromagnetic waves of different polarization independently has been demonstrated by a team in China. Tie Jun Cui from the Southeast University and co-workers have created a metamaterial that can, for example, split incoming unpolarized radiation so that horizontally polarized light goes one way while vertically polarized light goes the other. Metamaterials are structures that can be engineered to have optical properties not found in natural materials, and they consist of a repeated pattern of elements that are smaller than the wavelength of light. The researchers used two types of element, simple squares and dumbbells, which enabled them to independently control beams of long-wavelength radiation known as terahertz waves having differing polarizations. By reducing the size of the metamaterial elements, the same idea could also be applied to visible light.
TL;DR: A real-time digital-metasurface imager that can be trained in-situ to generate the radiation patterns required by machine-learning optimized measurement modes, and is electronically reprogrammed in real time to access the optimized solution for an entire data set.
Abstract: Conventional microwave imagers usually require either time-consuming data acquisition, or complicated reconstruction algorithms for data post-processing, making them largely ineffective for complex in-situ sensing and monitoring. Here, we experimentally report a real-time digital-metasurface imager that can be trained in-situ to generate the radiation patterns required by machine-learning optimized measurement modes. This imager is electronically reprogrammed in real time to access the optimized solution for an entire data set, realizing storage and transfer of full-resolution raw data in dynamically varying scenes. High-accuracy image coding and recognition are demonstrated in situ for various image sets, including hand-written digits and through-wall body gestures, using a single physical hardware imager, reprogrammed in real time. Our electronically controlled metasurface imager opens new venues for intelligent surveillance, fast data acquisition and processing, imaging at various frequencies, and beyond. Conventional imagers require time-consuming data acquisition, or complicated reconstruction algorithms for data post-processing. Here, the authors demonstrate a real-time digital-metasurface imager that can be trained in-situ to show high accuracy image coding and recognition for various image sets.