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Harold D. Beeson

Bio: Harold D. Beeson is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Flammability & Combustion. The author has an hindex of 10, co-authored 35 publications receiving 317 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, flame-retarded epoxy composites and phenolic composites containing fiberglass, aramid (Kevlar® 49), and graphite fiber-reinforcements were tested using the NASA upward flame propagation test, the controlled-atmosphere cone calorimeter test, and the liquid oxygen (LOX) mechanical impact test.
Abstract: Flame-retarded epoxy composites and phenolic composites containing fiberglass, aramid (Kevlar® 49), and graphite fiber-reinforcements were tested using the NASA upward flame propagation test, the controlled-atmosphere cone calorimeter test, and the liquid oxygen (LOX) mechanical impact test. The upward flame propagation test showed that phenolic/graphite had the highest flame resistance and epoxy/graphite had the lowest flame resistance. The controlled-atmosphere cone calorimeter was used to investigate the effect of oxygen concentration and fiber reinforcement on the burning behavior of composites. The LOX mechanical impact test showed that epoxy/fiberglass had the lowest ignition resistance and phenolic/aramid had the highest ignition resistance in LOX. The composites containing epoxy resin and/or aramid fiber reinforcement reacted very violently in LOX upon mechanical impact. © 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

91 citations

04 Jan 2007
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provided data on oxygen concentration self-extinguishment limits under quiescent conditions for selected materials considered for the Constellation Program for the first time.
Abstract: Materials selection for spacecraft is based on an upward flammability test conducted in a quiescent environment in the highest expected oxygen concentration environment. The test conditions and its pass/fail test logic do not provide sufficient quantitative materials flammability information for an advanced space exploration program. A modified approach has been suggested determination of materials self-extinguishment limits. The flammability threshold information will allow NASA to identify materials with increased flammability risk from oxygen concentration and total pressure changes, minimize potential impacts, and allow for development of sound requirements for new spacecraft and extraterrestrial landers and habitats. This paper provides data on oxygen concentration self-extinguishment limits under quiescent conditions for selected materials considered for the Constellation Program.

22 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the gross and net heat of combustion per unit weight can be obtained by dividing the gross heat per mole by the molecular weight of the monomer, and the average absolute % error for the predictions is 3.9%.
Abstract: The heats of combustion of 75 pure organic polymers with various chemical classes were used to develop empirical equations for predicting the gross and net heats of combustion of organic polymers. The equations were developed using atomic contribution and multiple linear regression methods. The gross and net heats of combustion per unit weight can be obtained by dividing the gross and net heats of combustion per mole by the molecular weight of the monomer. The average absolute % error for the predictions is 3.9%. In addition, two previously developed empirical equations, which predict the heats of combustion of organosilicon compounds, were used to predict the heats of combustion of silicone polymers.

21 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provided additional pressure effects data on oxygen concentration and partial pressure self-extinguishment limits under quiescent conditions and showed that the oxygen concentration/oxygen partial pressure flammability thresholds depend on the total pressure and appear to increase with increasing oxygen concentration (and oxygen partial pressure).
Abstract: Spacecraft materials selection is based on an upward flammability test conducted in a quiescent environment in the highest-expected oxygen-concentration environment. However, NASA s advanced space exploration program is anticipating using various habitable environments. Because limited data is available to support current program requirements, a different test logic is suggested to address these expanded atmospheric environments through the determination of materials self-extinguishment limits. This paper provides additional pressure effects data on oxygen concentration and partial pressure self-extinguishment limits under quiescent conditions. For the range of total pressures tested, the oxygen concentration and oxygen partial pressure flammability thresholds show a near linear function of total pressure. The oxygen concentration/oxygen partial pressure flammability thresholds depend on the total pressure and appear to increase with increasing oxygen concentration (and oxygen partial pressure). For the Constellation Program, the flammability threshold information will allow NASA to identify materials with increased flammability risk because of oxygen concentration and total pressure changes, minimize potential impacts, and allow for development of sound requirements for new spacecraft and extraterrestrial landers and habitats.

20 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used a cone calorimeter to study the ignition, flaming and smoldering combustion of low-density polyimide foam and found that the smoldered combustion is more significant when the incident heat flux is greater than 30 kW/m2.
Abstract: The ignition, flaming and smoldering combustion of low-density polyimide foam have been studied using a cone calorimeter. Low-density polyimide foam exhibits a high ignition resistance. The minimum heat flux for the ignition of flaming combustion ranges from 48 to 54 kW/m2. This minimum heat flux also indicates the heat flux for transition from smoldering to flaming combustion. The flaming combustion results show that the heat release rate of low-density polyimide foam is very low even at a high incident heat flux of 75 kW/m2. The smoldering combustion results show that the smoldering of low-density polyimide foam becomes significant when the incident heat flux is greater than 30 kW/m2. The smoldering combustion of low-density polyimide foam cannot be self-sustaining when the external heat source is removed. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

19 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Nanocellulose has excellent strength, high Young's modulus, biocompatibility, and tunable self-assembly, thixotropic, and photonic properties, which are essential for the applications of this material.
Abstract: With increasing environmental and ecological concerns due to the use of petroleum-based chemicals and products, the synthesis of fine chemicals and functional materials from natural resources is of great public value. Nanocellulose may prove to be one of the most promising green materials of modern times due to its intrinsic properties, renewability, and abundance. In this review, we present nanocellulose-based materials from sourcing, synthesis, and surface modification of nanocellulose, to materials formation and applications. Nanocellulose can be sourced from biomass, plants, or bacteria, relying on fairly simple, scalable, and efficient isolation techniques. Mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic treatments, or a combination of these, can be used to extract nanocellulose from natural sources. The properties of nanocellulose are dependent on the source, the isolation technique, and potential subsequent surface transformations. Nanocellulose surface modification techniques are typically used to introduce e...

864 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the recent literature on combustion and flame-retardancy of epoxy resins is presented in this article, where the main attention in recent years has been focused on phosphorus-containing epoxy monomers.
Abstract: An overview of the recent literature on combustion and flame-retardancy of epoxy resins is presented. A brief overview of the structures of cured epoxy resins is also presented as a background for better understanding of the thermal decomposition and combustion phenomena. The literature sources were mostly taken from the publications of 1995 and later; however, for basic descriptions of the structural and thermal decomposition principles, older publications are also cited. New developments in flame-retardant additives, epoxy monomers and curing agents are described. It is shown that the main attention in recent years has been focused on phosphorus-containing epoxy monomers and epoxy resins. Silicon-containing or nitrogen-containing products and inorganic additives remain of great interest as supplementary materials to phosphorus flame-retardants. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry

502 citations

Book
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a model for modeling composites in fire and showed that composites can resist fire under load and post-fire properties of laminates under load.
Abstract: Preface 1 Introduction: 1.1 Background 1.2 Fire reaction and fire resistive properties of composites 1.3 Composites and fire 1.4 Case studies of composites in fire 1.5 Concluding remarks References 2Thermal Decomposition of Composites in Fire: 2.1 Introduction2.2. Thermal decomposition mechanisms of organic polymers 2/3 Rate processes and characterisation of decomposition 2.4 Polymers and their decomposition processes 2.5 Fire damage to composites 2.6 Concluding remarks References 3 Fire Reaction Properties of Composites: 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Time-to-ignition 3.3 Heat release rate 3.4 Extinction flammability index & thermal stability index 3.5 Mass loss 3.6 Smoke 3.7 Smoke toxicity 3.8 Limiting oxygen index 3.9 Surface spread of flame 3.10 Fire resistance References 4. Fire Modelling of Composites: 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Thermal exposure 4.3 Modelling material fire dynamics 4.4 Structural modelling of fire response References 5 Modelling the Thermal Response of Composites in Fire: 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Response of composites to fire 5.3 Modelling heat conduction in composites 5.4 Modelling the fire response of composites 5.5 Modelling the thermal properties of composites 5.6 Concluding remarks References 6. Structural Properties of Composites in Fire: 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Laminate properties 6.3 Measurement of elastic constants 6.4 Mechanical properties as a function of temperature 6.5 Modelling of properties 6.6 Fire resistance of laminates under load 6.7 Modelling of fire resistance of laminates under load 6.8 Concluding remarks References 7. Post-Fire Properties of Composites: 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Post-fire properties of laminates 7.3 Modelling the post-fire properties of laminates 7.4 Post-fire properties of sandwich composites 7.5 Post-fire properties of fire protected composites 7.6 Concluding remarks References 8 Flame Retardant Composites: 8.1 Introduction 8.2 The combustion cycle 8.3 Flame retardants for composites 8.4 Flame retardant fillers for composite 8.5 Flame retardant organic polymers for composites 8.6 Flame retardant inorganic polymers for composites 8.7 Flame retardant fibres for composites 8.8 Fire protective surface coatings References 9 Fire Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites: 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Characterization of nanocomposite formation 9.3 Evaluation of fire retardancy 9.4 Clay modifications 9.5 Examples of fire retardancy of polymer nanocomposites 9.6 Mechanisms of fire retardancy in nanocomposites 9.7 Future trends in fire retardancy of nanocomposites References 10 Fire Safety Regulations: 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Fire safety regulations for rail 10.3 Fire safety regulations for automobiles, buses and trucks 10.4 Fire safety regulations for civil infrastructure 10.5 Fire safety regulations for civilian aircraft 10.6 Fire safety regulations for ships and submarines References 11 Fire Tests for Composites: 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Scale of fire reaction tests 11.3 Cone calorimeter 11.4 Atmosphere controlled cone calorimeter 11.5 Intermediate-scale cone calorimeter 11.6 Ohio State University calorimeter 11.7 Limiting oxygen index test 11.8 Flame spread tests 11.9 Smoke density tests 11.10 Furnace tests 11.11 Burn-through & jet-fire tests 11.12 Single burning item test 11.13 Room fire tests 11.14 Structural integrity in fire tests 11.15 Aircraft fire tests 11.16 Concluding remarks References 12 Health Hazards of Composites in Fire: 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Smoke toxicity test methods 12.3 Health hazards of combustion gases 12.4 N-gas model for smoke toxic potency 12.5 Health hazards of fibres 12.6 Personal protective wear against burning composite materials 12.7 Concluding remarks References Subject Index

482 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the flammability of natural fiber-reinforced composites and some of the more recent strategies used to improve their fire performance is presented.
Abstract: Natural fiber-reinforced composites are finding new applications in many sectors. In certain industries, such as building and transport, reduced material flammability is a key requirement. Knowledge of the flammability of natural fiber-reinforced composites and the methods used to improve their fire resistance is necessary to ensure their use in these industries. The purpose of this review is to examine important aspects of the flammability of natural fiber-reinforced composites and to outline some of the more recent strategies used to improve their fire performance.

259 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a critical review of research progress in modelling the structural response of polymer matrix composites exposed to fire is presented, where models for analysing the thermal, chemical, physical, and failure processes that control the structural responses of laminates and sandwich composite materials in fire are reviewed.
Abstract: This paper presents a critical review of research progress in modelling the structural response of polymer matrix composites exposed to fire. Models for analysing the thermal, chemical, physical, and failure processes that control the structural responses of laminates and sandwich composite materials in fire are reviewed. Models for calculating the residual structural properties of composites following fire are also described. Progress towards validation of the models by experimental characterisation of the structural properties of composites during and following fire is assessed. Deficiencies in the fire structural models are identified in the paper, which provide the focus for future research in the field.

253 citations